Union of Sweden and Norway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway

Förenade konungarikena Sverige och Norge
De forenede Kongeriger Norge og Sverige
1814–1905
Flag of Sweden and Norway
Union mark and diplomatic flag 1844–1905
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Sweden and Norway in 1905
Sweden and Norway in 1905
StatusPersonal union
CapitalStockholm & Christiania[a]
Common languagesSwedish, Danish, Norwegian[b], Western Sami languages
Religion
Protestant (Lutheran) Christianity
GovernmentConstitutional monarchies
King 
• 1814–1818
Charles XIII/II
• 1818–1844
Charles XIV/III John
• 1844–1859
Oscar I
• 1859–1872
Charles XV/IV
• 1872–1905
Oscar II
LegislatureLegislatures:[d]
• Swedish legislature
Swedish Parliament
• Norwegian legislature
Parliament of Norway
Historical era19th century
14 January 1814
• Charles XIII elected king of Norway
4 November 1814
4 November 1814
16 October 1875
• Norway declares independence
7 June 1905
13 August 1905
• Oscar II renounces claims to Norway
26 October 1905
Area
1905774,184 km2 (298,914 sq mi)
Population
• 1820
3550000[c]
• 1905
7560000[c]
CurrencySweden:
Riksdaler,
(1814–1873)
Krona
(1873–1905)
Norway:
Speciedaler,
(1814–1875)
Krone
(1875–1905)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
History of Sweden (1772–1809)
Kingdom of Norway (1814)
Sweden
Norway
a. ^ The king resided alternately in Stockholm (mostly) and Christiania (usually some months of each year). He received ministers from both Sweden and Norway in Union council, or separately in only Swedish or Norwegian councils. The majority of the Norwegian cabinet ministers convened in Christiania when the king was absent.
b. ^ The written Norwegian language ceased to exist in the first half of the 16th century and was replaced by Danish. Written Danish was still used during the union with Sweden, but was slightly norwegianized in the latter half of the 19th century. In 1885, the Parliament of Norway accepted Landsmål as an official written language at par with Danish.
c. ^ 1820: 2,585,000 in Sweden, and 970,000 in Norway.[1]
1905: 5,260,000 in Sweden, and 2,300,000 in Norway.[2]
d. ^ The Swedish Parliament was a diet composed of four estates until 1866. That year it became into a bicameral legislature. The Parliament of Norway was a unicameral legislature. In the Norwegian parliament the cabinet needed support from the majority.

The Union of Sweden and Norway (Swedish: Svensk-norska unionen; Norwegian: Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, was a personal union. It consisted of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under the same monarch. It lasted from 1814 to 1905.[3] In 1905 Sweden accepted Norway leaving the union.[4] Both states kept their separate constitutions, laws, legislatures, administrations, state churches, armed forces, and currencies. However the kings mostly resided in Stockholm. Stockholm was also the town where foreign diplomatic representations were located.

References[change | change source]

  1. Tacitus.no - Skandinaviens befolkning (in Swedish)
  2. SSB - 100 års ensomhet? Norge og Sverige 1905–2005 (in Norwegian)
  3. "Sweden". World Statesmen. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  4. "Norway". World Statesmen. Retrieved 17 January 2015.