Sweden

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Kingdom of Sweden

Konungariket Sverige[a]
Motto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a]
"For Sweden – With the Times"[1]
Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b]
Thou ancient, thou free

Royal anthemKungssången
Song of the King
Location of  Sweden  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Sweden  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Stockholm
59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067
Official languagesSwedish[c]

Official minority languages:[c]
Finnish
Meänkieli
Sami
Romani

Yiddish
Ethnic groups
No official statistics[d]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Carl XVI Gustaf
• Speaker
Urban Ahlin
Stefan Löfven
LegislatureRiksdag
History
• A unified Swedish kingdom established
By the early 12th century
• Part of Kalmar Union
1397–1523
4 November 1814 – August 1905[2]
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) (55th)
• Water (%)
8.7
Population
• 31 July 2017 census
10,065,389 Increase[3] (89th)
• Density
22.0/km2 (57.0/sq mi) (196th)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$498.130 billion[4] (34th)
• Per capita
$49,678[4] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$517.440 billion[4] (21st)
• Per capita
$51,603[4] (11th)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 25.4[5]
low
HDI (2015)Increase 0.913[6]
very high · 14th
CurrencySwedish krona (SEK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
Driving sideright[e]
Calling code+46
ISO 3166 codeSE
Internet TLD.se[f]
  1. ^ "För Sverige – I tiden" has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.
  2. ^ Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
  3. ^ Since 1 July 2009. Five other languages are officially recognised as minority languages:[7] Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
  4. ^ On 31 December 2012, approximately 27% of the population had a full or partial foreign background.[8][9]
  5. ^ Since 3 September 1967.
  6. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Sweden (Swedish: Sverige) is a Nordic country in the part of Europe called Scandinavia. Its neighbors are Finland and Norway. Sweden is also connected to Denmark in the south by a bridge. It is a developed country. It is famous for its welfare state. People who live in Sweden are called Swedes.

The population of Sweden is about 10,12 million people.[10] Sweden's capital city is Stockholm, which is also Sweden's largest city, with almost one million people. Other large cities are Gothenburg and Malmö. These cities are all in the southern half of the country, where it is not as cold as in the north.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy because it has a king, Carl XVI Gustaf, but he does not have any real power. Sweden is a parliamentary state meaning that the government is elected by the parliament which is appointed by the people. The country is democratically ruled by a government headed by an elected prime minister. Stefan Löfven was elected Prime Minister in September 2014. He took office in October 2014.

Sweden has an official majority language, Swedish (the Swedish word for the language is svenska). Sweden has five official minority languages: Finnish, Yiddish, Sami, Meänkieli, and Romani.

Sweden became a member of the European Union (EU) on 1 January 1995. Unlike most countries in the European Union, Sweden is not a member of the Eurozone and has not begun to use the euro as currency. This is because the people have voted against using the euro. The currency remains the Swedish krona (Swedish crown).

History[change | change source]

Sweden has been a country for a thousand years. In the Middle Ages Sweden had the same king as Denmark and Norway. In the early 16th century Sweden got its own king, Gustav Vasa. During the 17th century Sweden was a great power. Sweden had taken Estonia, Latvia, and Finland and parts of Norway, Germany, and Russia. In the 18th century Sweden became weaker and lost these places. In the early 19th century Sweden's king died without an heir and the Swedish parliament voted for Jean Baptiste Bernadotte as the new king. Bernadotte fought Denmark and made them allow Norway to enter a personal union with Sweden.

This was Sweden's last war, and Sweden has not been at war for 200 years. In 1905, the Swedish-Norwegian personal union was dissolved. In many wars, including World War I and the Cold War, the country was neutral, meaning it did not take sides. During World War II, it traded with both the British and the Germans in order to protect its neutrality.

Region[change | change source]

Sweden is divided into 21 counties. They are Stockholm, Uppsala, Södermanland, Östergötland, Jönköping, Kronoberg, Kalmar, Gotland, Blekinge, Skåne, Halland, Västra Götaland, Värmland, Örebro, Västmanland, Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Jämtland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten.

Sweden has 25 historical provinces (landskap). They are found in three different regions: Norrland in the North, Svealand in the central region, and Götaland in the South.

Religion[change | change source]

Sweden has been Christian for a thousand years. Sweden is traditionally a Protestant country, but it is now one of the least religious countries in the world. Statistical surveys say 46-85% of all people in Sweden are agnostics or atheists. This means they do not believe in a god.[11] About 6.4 million people in Sweden, which is 67% of all the people, are members of the Church of Sweden, but only 2% of members go to church often.[12]

Music[change | change source]

In popular music, ABBA, Roxette, The Cardigans, Europe, Entombed, At the Gates, In Flames, Dark Tranquillity, Hypocrisy, Grave, Dissection, Avicii, Tove Lo, Laleh, Watain, and Ace of Base have had several hits throughout the years.

Sports[change | change source]

Sweden is a country with many talented athletes, such as soccer player Zlatan Ibrahimović. Sweden has two bronze medals and one silver medal from the World Cup in football (soccer), in 1950, 1958, and 1994. The soccer league in Sweden is called Allsvenskan. Sweden has also performed well in ice hockey along with the USA, Canada, Finland, Russia, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. The men's ice hockey top division in Sweden is called SHL. Sweden has also had several successful table tennis players, including Stellan Bengtsson and Jan-Ove Waldner, as well as alpine skiers including Ingemar Stenmark, Pernilla Wiberg, and Anja Pärson. Other champions include biathlete Magdalena Forsberg and tennis players Björn Borg, Mats Wilander, Stefan Edberg, and Jonas Björkman.

Sweden also succeeds in cross-country skiing, having won several medals in the Olympic games.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Mottoes of The Kings and Queens of Sweden". www.kungahuset.se. Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  2. Norborg, Lars-Arne. "svensk–norska unionen". ne.se (in Swedish). Nationalencyklopedin. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  3. Key figures for Sweden. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Sweden". International Monetary Fund.
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  6. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  7. "Är svenskan också officiellt språk i Sverige?" [Is Swedish also an official language in Sweden?] (in Swedish). Swedish Language Council. 1 February 2008. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
  8. "Summary of Population Statistics 1960–2012". Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. Note that Swedish-speaking Finns or other Swedish-speakers born outside Sweden might identify as Swedish despite being born abroad. Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes. As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden. This is not, however, to be confused with migrants' national backgrounds, which are recorded.
  10. "Sweden website". Statistics Sweden website. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  11. Zuckerman, Phil (2007), Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns PDF i Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-60367-6
  12. "Liturgy and Worship", Church of Sweden
  1. In recognized minority languages of Sweden:
    • Finnish: Ruotsin kuningaskunta
    • Meänkieli: Ruotsiin kuningaskunta
    • Northern Sami: Ruoŧŧa gonagasriika
    • Romani: Thagaripen e Suediyako
    • Yiddish: קעניגרייך פון שוועדן‎, romanized: Kenigreykh fun Shvedn

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Sweden at Wikimedia Commons Sweden travel guide from Wikivoyage