Republic of Ireland

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Éire (Irish)
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"
"The Soldiers' Song"
Location of  Ireland  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Ireland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

and largest city
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417°N 6.2675°W / 53.34417; -6.2675
Official languages
National language Irish[1]
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
  • 84.5% White Irish
  • 9.1% Other White
  • 1.6% Not stated
  • 1.5% Other Asian / Asian Irish
  • 1.3% Other
  • 1.4% Black Irish / Black African
  • 0.7% Irish Traveller
  • 0.4% Chinese
  • 0.1% Other Black
Demonym Irish
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
 -  President Michael D. Higgins
 -  Taoiseach Enda Kenny
 -  Tánaiste Frances Fitzgerald
Legislature Oireachtas
 -  Upper house Seanad
 -  Lower house Dáil
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Proclamation 24 April 1916 
 -  Declaration 21 January 1919 
 -  Anglo-Irish Treaty 6 December 1921 
 -  1922 constitution 6 December 1922 
 -  1937 constitution 29 December 1937 
 -  Republic Act 18 April 1949 
 -  Total 70,273 km2 (120th)
27,133 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.00
 -  2016 census 4,757,976[3] (120th)
 -  Density 67.7/km2 (142nd)
175.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total $324 billion[4] (56th)
 -  Per capita $69,375[4] (11th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 -  Total $308 billion[4] (42nd)
 -  Per capita $65,871[4] (14th)
Gini (2014)  30.0[5]
medium · 23rd
HDI (2015) Increase 0.916[6]
very high · 6th
Currency Euro ()[note 1] (EUR)
Time zone GMT/WET (UTC​)
 -  Summer (DST) IST/WEST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +353
Internet TLD .ie[b]
a. ^  Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[7]
b. ^  The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Ireland (Listeni/ˈaɪərlənd/; Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)), also described as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south-east and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[8] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, and appoints other government ministers.

History[change | change source]

Several hundred years ago, the English took over the country and made it part of the United Kingdom in 1801. Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1922 and has been an independent country since then.

Politics[change | change source]

The head of State, the President, is elected for seven years by the adult citizens. The same president can only be elected twice (14 years). Most of the president's tasks are representing and ceremonial ones. The president has little power over the government.

Ireland is a democracy and people vote for their representatives. The Taoiseach (equivalent to a prime minister) is selected by the parliament. The Taoiseach is usually the head of the biggest party.

The Oireachtas (equivalent to the parliament) consists of the Dáil Éireann (the lower House) and the Seanad (the 'upper House'). The system is similar to that of France or the United States, except that the President is not an executive.

The main political parties in Ireland are Fine Gael 25%, Sinn Féin 22%, Fianna Fail 18%, the Labour Party 7% and others, ref RED C poll 29 th June 2014.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Official Languages Act 2003". Office of the Attorney-General. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  2. "CSO 2011 Census – Volume 5 – Ethnic or Cultural Background (including the Irish Traveller Community)" (PDF). 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  3. "Census of Population 2016". 14 July 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Ireland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  6. "2015 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  7. John Coakley (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-415-47672-0. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  8. L. Prakke; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004), Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States, Deventer: Kluwer, p. 429, ISBN 9013012558, "Since 1937 Ireland has been a parliamentary republic, in which ministers appointed by the president depend on the confidence of parliament"

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