Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland (Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom.

The whole island of Ireland used to be a kingdom, called the Kingdom of Ireland. But after the Act of Union in the year 1800, it became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This stayed until 1922, after a civil war, when Ireland was divided into the Republic of Ireland, the sovereign state that takes up the southern part of the island, and Northern Ireland, which chose to stay as part of the UK.

About 1.8 million people live in Northern Ireland, and the capital and largest city is Belfast.

Northern Ireland
Anthem: God Save the Queen
Location of  Northern Ireland  (dark green)– in the European Union  (light green & dark grey)– in the United Kingdom  (light green)
Location of  Northern Ireland  (dark green)

– in the European Union  (light green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom  (light green)

and largest city
Official languages English (de facto)[note 1], Irish, Ulster-Scots
Ethnic groups (2011[1]) 98.3% White, 1.7% Other
Demonym Irish
Government Devolved government within a constitutional monarchy
Theresa May, MP
• Secretary of State (UK)
Karen Bradley, MP
Legislature Northern Ireland Assembly
• Government of Ireland Act
3 May 1921
• Northern Ireland Constitution Act
18 July 1973
• Northern Ireland Act (1974)
17 July 1974
• Northern Ireland Act (1998)
19 November 1998
• Total
13,843 km2 (5,345 sq mi)
• 2011 census
1,810,863 [2]
• Density
131/km2 (339.3/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) 2002 estimate
• Total
£33.2 billion
• Per capita
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
• Summer (DST)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint Patrick
ISO 3166 code GB-NIR
Internet TLD .uk, .ie, .eu

Sometimes people use other names for Northern Ireland. Some call it Ulster, even though some parts of Ulster are actually in the Republic of Ireland. Others call it "the North" or "the Six Counties", because they do not want to recognise that a part of the island of Ireland is not independent and is actually in the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland is the smallest part of the United Kingdom at 5,345 sq mi.

Languages[change | change source]

English is spoken by almost everyone in Northern Ireland. Another important language is Irish (sometimes called "Irish Gaelic") and a language known as Ulster Scots, which comes from Eastern Ulster and Lowland Scotland. The Irish language became less widely spoken in the 20th century, but a revival has led to increased usage, especially in Belfast, the Glens of Antrim and counties Tyrone and Fermanagh. This revival has been driven largely through the creation of Irish-language schools. The Irish language is spoken by some nationalists (whether Catholic or Protestant) people. Ulster Scots is almost exclusive to areas of North Antrim and the Ards Peninsula.

Some languages like Chinese, Urdu or Polish are becoming more common in Northern Ireland as people from other countries move to Northern Ireland.

Belfast Agreement[change | change source]

Since the Belfast Agreement (sometimes called the Good Friday Agreement) of Friday, 10 April 1998, there has been mainly peace between the two sides of the community. This agreement was agreed by most of the people in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, as well as the Irish and British governments. It allows for the self-government of Northern Ireland and greater North-South co-operation and co-operation between Britain and the Republic of Ireland. Additionally, it makes clear the right of the people of Northern Ireland to decide their constitutional future and select whether they are British citizens, Irish citizens or both.

Sport[change | change source]

The most popular sports in Northern Ireland are association football, gaelic football and rugby union. Athletics, boxing, cricket, golf, hockey, hurling, snooker and motor sports are also common. Most sports are organised on an all-Ireland basis, and in international competitions, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland compete together as Ireland (e.g. Ireland national rugby union team, Ireland national cricket team). The main exception is football.

Football in Northern Ireland is governed by the Irish Football Association (IFA). In international competitions Northern Ireland has its own team - the Northern Ireland national football team. The Northern Ireland team has qualified for three FIFA World Cups (in 1958, 1982 and 1986). Perhaps the most famous player from Northern Ireland was George Best.

Track and field athletes from Northern Ireland can choose to compete either with athletes from Great Britain (as the team "Great Britain & Northern Ireland"), or with athletes from the rest of Ireland (as "Ireland").

Belfast is home to the Ulster Rugby team (which competes in the Pro 12 league and Heineken Cup), and the Belfast Giants ice-hockey team.

Railways[change | change source]

Trains are run by NI Railways which run from Belfast to Portrush, Londonderry, Bangor, Larne, Portadown and Newry. The Enterprise is run by both NI Railways and Irish Rail and links Belfast to Dublin.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Northern Ireland Census 2011 Output". NISRA. 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  2. Norther Ireland Statistics & Research Agency (December 2012). "Census 2011 Key Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 14 January 2013. 

Notes[change | change source]

  1. English is established by de facto usage.