|Motto: "Desire the Right"|
|Anthem: God Save the King (official)|
Song of the Falklands [a]
and largest city
|Government||British Overseas Territory[b]|
• Responsible Minister (UK)
|12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi) (162nd)|
• Water (%)
• 2012 estimate
|0.26/km2 (0.7/sq mi) (241st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|$75 million (223rd)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Falkland Islands pound[d] (FKP)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (FKST[e])|
|ISO 3166 code||FK|
The Falkland Islands are a group of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of South America. They are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Argentina disputes this, and claims their sovereignty.
The Falklands War was fought over their possession during Margaret Thatcher's time as British Prime Minister. There are many islands in the group but the two biggest are East Falkland and West Falkland. As of the census of 2016, 3,398 people live on them. The people of the islands are British and speak English. The main income for the people is from fishing and sheep farming.
The Falkland Islands are about 300 miles (480 km) east of Argentina. Argentina and the UK had a short war in 1982 because Argentina claims to own the islands. The war lasted 6 weeks and about 1,000 soldiers were killed. The UK defeated Argentina and after this the governments of the two countries would not negotiate (talk) with each other. In 1990 they began to have talks again, but Argentina later refused to continue talks.
Oil and gas has been found below the sea around the islands. There is also oil and gas outside the sea area that belongs to the UK. This is owned by Argentina.
History[change | change source]
The islands were discovered and occupied by Europeans. They were not inhabited until 1754, when a French captain landed and founded Port Louie. The British landed in 1766 and created a settlement at Port Egmont on Saunders Island. Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was avoided by Spain giving it back to Britain in 1771.
Later attempts by Spanish forces from the Río de la Plata to seize Falklands were ended in 1833, when British forces took control. In 1840 the Falkland Islands became a Crown Colony of the British Empire.
Modern times[change | change source]
The Falklands became a British Dependent Territory in 1981. This followed the British Nationality Act 1981. In 1983 the Falkland Islanders were granted British citizenship. On 18 April 1985 the Falkland Islands Constitution Order 1985 came into force which increased the number of elected members of the Legislative Council to eight. It guaranteed the Falkland Islanders' rights and constitutional arrangements. In 1997 the constitution was amended with regard to voters rights. In 2002 the Falklands became a British Overseas Territory with the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. On 1 January 2009 the current constitution came into force with the Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008. This replaced the 1985 version. It was agreed on by the UK Government and the Falkland Islands Government. The new constitution provided for finance, the public service, the administration of justice, and a Complaints Commissioner.
Geography[change | change source]
The Falkland Islands have a land area of 4,700 sq mi (12,000 km2) and a coastline estimated at 800 mi (1,300 km). The archipelago is made of two main islands, West Falkland and East Falkland. It also has 776 smaller islands. The islands are mostly full of mountains and hills, with the main exception being the plains of Lafonia. The Falklands is made of continental crust pieces made from the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are in the South Atlantic Ocean, on the Patagonian Shelf. They are about 300 mi (480 km) east of Patagonia in southern Argentina.
The archipelago's two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound, and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbours. East Falkland has the capital, Stanley and the archipelago's highest point, Mount Usborne, at 2,313 ft (705 m).
The climate of the islands is cold, windy, and humid. There is a lot of rain over half of the year, with an average of 610 mm (24 in) in Stanley. There is occasional light snowfall nearly all year. Strong westerly winds and cloudy skies are common.
Culture[change | change source]
Falklands culture is based on the cultural traditions of its British settlers but has also been influenced by Hispanic South America. Falklanders still use some terms and place names from the former Gaucho inhabitants. The Falklands' official and most common language is English, with the most common dialect being British English. Some inhabitants also speak Spanish.
References[change | change source]
- "Falkland Islands Census 2012: Headline results" (PDF). Falkland Islands Government. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- 2002 estimate. "CIA World Factbook 2012". cia.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
- "Falkland Islands will remain on summer time throughout 2011". MercoPress. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Joshua Project. "Ethnic People Groups of Falkland Islands". Joshua Project. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
- Toward Resolution?: The Falklands/Malvinas Dispute, ed. Wayne S Smith (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991), p. 48
- Gibran, Daniel 1998. The Falklands War: Britain versus the past in the South Atlantic. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0406-3
- At this time, Argentina did not exist.
- Graham-Yooll, Andrew 2002. Imperial skirmishes: war and gunboat diplomacy in Latin America. Oxford, England: Signal Books. ISBN 978-1-902669-21-2
- Laver, Roberto (February 2001). The Falklands/Malvinas Case: Breaking the Deadlock in the Anglo-Argentine Sovereignty Dispute. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9789041115348. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "New Falklands constitution agreed". BBC News. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
- Sainato 2010, p. 157. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSainato2010 (help)
- Central Intelligence Agency 2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Geography". sfn error: no target: CITEREFCentral_Intelligence_Agency2011 (help)
- Trewby 2002, p. 79. sfn error: no target: CITEREFTrewby2002 (help)
- Klügel 2009, p. 66. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKlügel2009 (help)
- Hemmerle 2005, p. 318. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHemmerle2005 (help)
- Guo 2007, p. 112. sfn error: no target: CITEREFGuo2007 (help)
- Minahan 2013, p. 139. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMinahan2013 (help)
- Wagstaff 2001, p. 21. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWagstaff2001 (help)
- Wagstaff 2001, p. 66. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWagstaff2001 (help)
- L.L. Ivanov et al.. The Future of the Falkland Islands and Its People. Sofia: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2003. 96 pp. ISBN 954-91503-1-3 (Capítulo principal en español)
- Carlos Escudé y Andrés Cisneros, dir. Historia general de las relaciones exteriores de la República Argentina. Archived 2007-05-28 at Archive.today Obra desarrollada y publicada bajo los auspicios del Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales (CARI). Buenos Aires: GEL/Nuevohacer, 2000. ISBN 950-694-546-2 (en castellano)
- Graham Pascoe and Peter Pepper. Getting it right: The real history of the Falklands/Malvinas. Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine May 2008.
- D.W. Greig, Sovereignty and the Falkland Islands Crisis. Austrialian Year Book of International Law. Vol. 8 (1983). pp. 20–70. ISSN 0084-7658