Motto: Majulah Singapura (Malay)
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Lee Hsien Loong|
from the United Kingdom and Malaysia
|3 June 1959|
|16 September 1963|
|9 August 1965|
|8 August 1967|
|731.0 km2 (282.2 sq mi) (176th)|
• 2019 estimate
|7,804/km2 (20,212.3/sq mi) (2nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$615.698 billion (36th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$391.875 billion (31st)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2017)|| 45.9|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.938|
very high · 11th
|Currency||Singapore dollar (S$) (SGD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Singapore Standard Time)|
|Mains electricity||230 V–50 Hz|
|ISO 3166 code||SG|
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign country as well as a city-state. It is at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula in Asia, between the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea. Singapore is about one degree of latitude (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator. About 5.70 million people live in Singapore. About 3.31 million are citizens. Most of them are ethnically Chinese, Malay, or Indian, as well as a smaller number of other Asians.
Present-day Singapore was founded in 1819 by Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British Empire. During the Second World War, Singapore was taken over by Japan in 1942, but returned to British control after Japan surrendered in 1945. Singapore started to govern itself in 1959, and in 1963 became part of the new federation of Malaysia, together with Malaya, North Borneo, and Sarawak. Political and social differences led to Singapore being removed from the federation two years later, becoming an independent country on its own.
The symbolic national language of Singapore is Malay. Other official languages of Singapore are English, Mandarin and Tamil. English is the language of choice because it is the language that everyone in Singapore knows and uses. It is the first language taught in schools and the language used by the government and in court. Students are also usually taught the language of their ethnicity. This means that the Chinese will learn Mandarin, Malays will learn Malay, and so on. Students can also choose to learn a third language in secondary school. As a result, most Singaporeans are bilingual.
Singapore is also known as a "Garden City" or a "City in a Garden". It is because there are plants everywhere, making it look like a garden. Singapore has one of the highest standards of living in the world, with very good education, healthcare, housing, and very low corruption. It is also known for having many strict rules and punishments, including fines. This is why it is also sometimes jokingly called a "fine" city. The government says this has helped Singapore in being a very safe country. Singapore is one of the founding members of ASEAN.
History[change | change source]
Before 1819[change | change source]
Singapore's name comes from 'Singa Pura', which means Lion City in Sanskrit. Many people around the world understand "Lion City" to refer to Singapore. There is some debate about who founded Singapore. According to the Malay Annals, a Sumatran prince called Sang Nila Utama landed on Temasek (Singapore's old name) and saw a Lion which is called 'Singa' in Malay. Thus he gave the island a new name, 'Singapura'. However, Sang Nila Utama was likely mistaken, as lions never existed in Singapore. It is believed that the "lion" was actually a Malayan Tiger, which also exists in neighbouring Malaysia. While now extinct in Singapore it used to be present back then.
1819 to 1942[change | change source]
Few people lived in Singapore at the beginning of the 19th century. British governor Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapore on 28 January 1819 and wanted to set up a British trading town. At the time, the island was then ruled by Tengku Abdul Rahman, the Sultan of Johor, who the Dutch and the Bugis from Sulawesi had controlled. However, the Sultanate was weakened by infighting: the Temenggong (Chief Minister) of Tengku Abdul Rahman, as well as his officials, supported the Sultan's elder brother Tengku Long, who was living in exile in Riau.
With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to secretly bring Tengku Long back into Singapore. Raffles offered to recognize Tengku Long as the true Sultan of Johor, under the title of Sultan Hussein, as well as giving him $5000 per year and another $3000 to the Temenggong; in return, Sultan Hussein would give the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore. An official treaty was signed on 6 February 1819.
In 1824, another treaty with the Sultan led to the entire island becoming under the British. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements. Singapore became the regional capital in 1836. Before Raffles arrived, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860, the population had grown to over 80,000, more than half being Chinese. The country was given colony status in 1867. Later, in the 1890s, when the rubber industry became established in Malaya and Singapore, the island became a global center for sorting rubber and exporting them.
World War I[change | change source]
Singapore was not really affected by the First World War (1914–18), as the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant event during the war was the 1915 Singapore Mutiny by Muslim soldiers from British India, who were garrisoned in Singapore. After hearing news that they were to be sent to fight the Ottoman Empire in Europe, a Muslim state, the soldiers killed their officers and several British civilians before the mutiny was stopped by non-Muslim troops arriving from Johore and Burma.
Interwar period[change | change source]
After World War I, the British built the large Singapore Naval Base as part of the defensive Singapore strategy. First announced in 1921, the construction of the base went at a slow pace until the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Costing $60 million and not fully completed in 1938, it was the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and had enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months. The base was defended by heavy naval guns stationed at Fort Siloso, Fort Canning and Labrador Park, as well as a Royal Air Force airfield at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill called Singapore the "Gibraltar of the East", and military discussions often referred to the base as just "East of Suez".
However, the main fleet was in Europe, and the British did not have enough money to build a second fleet to protect their Asian colonies. The plan was for the Home Fleet to sail quickly to Singapore in the event of an emergency. As a result, after World War II broke out in 1939, the fleet was busy defending Britain from Germany, leaving Singapore open for a Japanese invasion.
World War II[change | change source]
Due to the weak defenses of the country, the Japanese attacked Singapore and easily took control of the colony on 15 February 1942. Up to 60,000 British soldiers surrendered on that day, and Churchill called it "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history". There were a lot of losses by both the British and the rest of the Empire, with a total of nearly 85,000 people captured. About 5,000 were killed or injured, many from Australia and India.
People of Singapore went through hard times during the Japanese rule, until the surrender of the Japanese in September of 1945. Many people were tortured or killed by the Japanese as they did not follow the rules properly or because they were suspected of going against the Japanese. The Japanese also targeted the Chinese the most; between 5,000 and 25,000 Chinese were killed, now known as the Sook Ching massacre. The most notable anti-Japanese force was Force 136, headed by Lim Bo Seng. Its purpose was to encourage and supply resistance movements in the enemy-occupied territory and occasionally mount sabotage operations.
Independence[change | change source]
A few years after the war, In 1963, Singapore joined with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak to form the new nation of Malaysia. Malaysia is a country with many races. In Malaya, only the Malays have special benefits. For example, the Malays could get university education more easily than other races.
As most people in Singapore are Chinese, Singapore wanted equality for all the people of Malaysia. Singapore also wanted a common market to be set up so that goods to Malaysia would not be taxed. However, this was not done and caused arguments between the state government of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia.
After Independence[change | change source]
After Independence, the president of Singapore was Yusof Ishak and its prime minister was Lee Kuan Yew. At first, many people thought Singapore's independence would not last. In 1967, Singapore helped to start the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and in 1970 it joined the Non-Aligned Movement. Lee Kuan Yew was in charge of the country as Prime Minister of Singapore and saw it become very developed.
In 1990, Goh Chok Tong replaced Lee Kuan Yew as prime minister, while Lee Kuan Yew became Senior Minister. When Goh Chok Tong was Prime Minister, Singapore went through the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 2003 SARS outbreak and terrorist threats by Jemaah Islamiyah. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the son of Lee Kuan Yew, took over as Prime Minister. Goh Chok Tong became the Senior Minister, and Lee Kuan Yew became the Minister Mentor of Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew died in 2015.
Government and politics[change | change source]
Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. Its constitution states representative democracy as its political system. Singapore is ranked regularly as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, according to Transparency International.
The Cabinet has executive power, and is led by the Prime Minister, and the President. The president is elected through popular vote, and has some veto powers for a few big decisions such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a post with little power.
The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of government. Members of Parliament (MPs) are made up of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) system and represent either single-member or group-representation constituencies. Elections are free, and the People's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since self-governance in 1959. In the most recent parliamentary elections in 2020, the largest opposition, led by the Workers' Party, increased its representation in the House to 10 elected MPs out of 93.
The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law, however with large and important local differences. Trial by jury was removed in 1970 leaving judicial judgement done completely and only by judgeship. Singapore has laws that include corporal punishment in the form of caning for rape, rioting, vandalism, and some immigration crimes. There is a mandatory death penalty for murder, and for certain drug-trafficking and firearms offences. In a 2008 survey, international business executives believed Singapore had the best judicial system in Asia.
People[change | change source]
Religion[change | change source]
Education[change | change source]
Students in Singapore go through six years of compulsory primary school, which ends with all students taking a Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Then, depending on their results in the PSLE, students are streamed into "Special", "Express", "Normal (Academic)", and "Normal (Technical)" groups. The amount of time a student spends studying in Secondary school (4–5 years) depends on their group.
- Malay special programme – For non-Malay speakers
- Chinese special programme – For non-Chinese speakers
Students can take a third language as it increases their chances in getting an overseas scholarship and can improve their examination grades, especially in the GCE Ordinary Level ("O" Levels), which are Secondary students take after their five or four years of education. However, only some students can qualify to take a third language.
After their "O" Levels, students can choose to go to a polytechnic, which is a place where students can study for 3 years for a diploma or to a junior college where students study for 2 years to receive an "A" Level. Students can also go to Institutes of Technical Education (ITE), where students study for two years to receive a "National ITE Certificate" (NITEC). This certificate is only recognized in Singapore. Students who go to ITE usually continue their education at a polytechnic.
Languages[change | change source]
The Singapore government has chosen four official languages: English, Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), and Tamil. English is the primary language. Singapore English is the main language in Singapore.
English is the first language of the nation, but it is not the most common. English is the second most commonly spoken language among Singaporeans. The most commonly spoken language amongst Singaporeans in their homes is Chinese (51%), followed by English (32%), Malay (13%) and Tamil (7%). This means that 32% of Singaporeans are native English speakers. Most of the rest of the people speak it as a second language. However, English has the largest total number of speakers including native and second language speakers. Mandarin Chinese is the second most common.
Almost 40% of people in Singapore are foreign. Most foreigners come from Asia. The country where most foreigners come from are Malaysia, its closest neighbor. In 2009, there may have been 350,000 Malaysians working in Singapore. Many Chinese-speaking foreigners and Chinese-speaking Singaporeans work in services. Thus, Chinese is the main language of many workers such as hawkers, retail assistants, hairdressers, etc. in Singapore today.
Singaporean English mainly comes from British English. The forms of English spoken in Singapore range from Standard English to a pidgin called Singlish. The Singapore government and many Singaporeans are against using Singlish. There is a "Speak Good English" campaign each year. Public schools and in the media also have rules against Singlish. There are many Singapore accents in English because of the many languages and identities of people in the city. Languages can even change over the generations and children may speak different languages and have different accents from their mother. For example, in a Singaporean Chinese family, the grandmother might speak Hokkien as her first language. Differently, the mother might speak Mandarin as her first language and Hokkien/English as her second languages, while the grandson might speak English as his first language and Mandarin as his second language.
Before independence in 1965, Hokkien, a Chinese dialect, was the common language among the Chinese laborers. Malay and English were used to communicate between the different ethnic groups. After independence in 1965, English became the first language of the nation and replaced Hokkien and Malay as the one shared language. Today, most younger Singaporeans have English as their first language or are fluent in English.
Malay is a national language of Singapore because of the history of the city. However, less than 20% of Singaporeans can read and write in Malay. Malay is still used at home by most Malay Singaporeans. The Malay used in Singapore (Bahasa Melayu) is closer to the language in Malaysia than the language in Indonesia. However, there are differences between the Malay in Singapore and in Malaysia. The national anthem "Majulah Singapura" is sung in Malay.
Many people speak Chinese – Mandarin and other Chinese dialects – in Singapore. Just over 50% of Singaporeans speak it at home, so it is the most common language in homes. Singaporean Mandarin is based on simplified Chinese and it is similar to the system used in mainland China. The forms of Mandarin spoken in Singapore range from Standard Mandarin to a pidgin known as Singdarin. Besides Mandarin, many southern Chinese dialects are also spoken in Singapore.
Hokkien used to be a lingua franca among the Singaporean Chinese so many older Singaporeans still understand Hokkien. The most common Chinese dialects spoken by Singaporeans are the Hokkien, Hainan, Teochew and Cantonese. However, Chinese dialects other than Mandarin are not allowed in the media, so these dialects are quickly dying out. Most younger Singaporeans do not speak them anymore.
Tamil, a South Indian language, is spoken by about half of Indians in Singapore. That is about 5% of all Singaporeans. However, North Indian languages such as Hindi and Punjabi are also spoken by a small group of Singaporean Indians in Singapore.
Culture[change | change source]
Singapore has many kinds of people and immigrants from many places. Therefore, Singaporean culture has often been described as a mix of cultures – European, Malay, Chinese, Indian and Peranakan. Also, foreigners are 42% of the population in Singapore and they are part of changing Singaporean culture.
Food[change | change source]
Dining is an important part of life in Singapore. Singaporean food is an example of the many different cultures in the country. It is also an example of mixing among cultures. British, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Tamil, and Indonesian styles of cooking all mix together. It is especially known for its sea food. Typical Singaporean food includes: Satay, Nasi lemak, Chilli crab, Kaya toast, and Hainanese chicken rice.
Media[change | change source]
MediaCorp, the state-owned media corporation, operates all seven local broadcast television channels in Singapore. It also runs 13 radio stations of the total 18 radio stations in Singapore. Radio and television stations are all owned by government controlled companies. However, one radio transmitter in Singapore is not controlled by the government. That is the Far Eastern Relay Station of the BBC World Service.
National flower[change | change source]
The national flower of Singapore is Vanda Miss Joaquim. It is a type of orchid and it is a hybrid orchid. This makes Singapore the only nation in the world to have a hybrid as a national flower. It was chosen because it was part of the effort to create national pride and identity.
Economy[change | change source]
Singapore has a strong and free economy that supports a large middle class. The city state is a global shipping and logistics hub and many multinational firms have their offices in Singapore. The national airline, Singapore Airlines, has a large global network which brings tourists and business travelers alike, to the city. The airline has often been ranked as the world's best airline.
Singapore also has a port located at the south of Singapore, called Keppel Harbour. It is one of the busiest ports around the world with many ships coming in to trade in a single day. Singapore also has another port on Jurong Island.
Money[change | change source]
Geography[change | change source]
Singapore is made up of 63 islands, including the main island, which is known as Singapore Island to most people, but is also known as Pulau Ujong. There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).
About 23% of Singapore's land area are forest and nature reserves. Urbanisation has removed most primary rainforest, with Bukit Timah Nature Reserve the only significant remaining forest. Even though there is very little primary rainforest left, there are more than 300 parks and four nature reserves in Singapore. There are also many trees planted all over Singapore and almost fifty per cent of the country is covered by trees and plants. Because of this, Singapore is also commonly known as the 'Garden City'.
Singapore, being a small country, has been reclaiming land from the sea around the island. The first time Singapore started to reclaim land was in the 1960s. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km2 and it has increased to 730 km2 in the 2010s, which is an increase of about 20% in total land area. It may grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030. Some land reclamation projects involve joining together smaller islands to make larger islands with more uses, like Jurong Island. Singapore uses the landfill method to reclaim the sea at the south of the country, but polders have been recently used too. The country's rapid reclamation projects has made disputes with its neighbouring countries, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Climate[change | change source]
Singapore is hot and wet all year round. It has a tropical rainforest climate (Af in the Köppen climate classification), which means there are no seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in Singapore. There is the most rain at the end of the year, and the temperature is usually around 20 °C to 35 °C.
Although Singapore does not experience the four seasons, the period from May to June is usually warmer, while the period from November to January is cooler because of the more frequent rains and monsoonal winds in Singapore during the year-end.
|Climate data for Singapore|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.5
|Average high °C (°F)||29.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||24.5
|Average low °C (°F)||23.3
|Record low °C (°F)||18.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||242.4
|Average rainy days||15||11||14||15||15||13||13||14||14||16||19||19||178|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75.3||82.9||83.8||84.7||84.3||82.8||82.7||82.9||83.4||84.0||83.3||80.9||79.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||172.4||183.2||192.7||173.6||179.8||177.7||187.9||180.6||156.2||155.2||129.6||133.5||2,022.4|
|Source 1: National Environment Agency (Temp 1929–1941 and 1948–2013, Rainfall 1869–2013, Humidity 1929–1941 and 1948–2013, Rain days 1891–2013)|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun only, 1961—1990)|
Relations with other countries[change | change source]
Singapore has diplomatic relations with 175 other Sovereign states. Singapore's foreign policy is to maintain a secure environment in Southeast Asia as well as the countries near Southeast Asia. A basic rule is the political and economic stability in Southeast Asia.
ASEAN[change | change source]
Singapore is part of the ASEAN (Association of the South East Asian nations) network, which is an organisation that unites all Southeast Asian countries. Member countries of ASEAN work with and help other countries in ASEAN. Singapore is one of the countries that founded ASEAN, and is the most developed country among them all.
Commonwealth of Nations[change | change source]
Holidays[change | change source]
Public holidays in Singapore:
- New Year's Day
- Chinese New Year (Chinese Festival) – 2 days
- Good Friday
- Labour Day
- Vesak Day (Buddhist Festival)
- National Day
- Hari Raya Puasa (Malay Festival)
- Deepavali (Indian Festival)
- Hari Raya Haji (Malay Festival)
- Christmas Day
Records[change | change source]
Even though it is a small country, Singapore holds many world records with its buildings and people. Some are:
|Type of record||Name of record||Received record|
|Building||For the tallest Ferris wheel in the world||Singapore Flyer|
|Building||For the tallest indoor waterfall in the world||Jewel Changi Airport|
|Sports||Olympic record (OR) at the 100 metres butterfly||Joseph Schooling – 2016 Summer Olympics|
Transportation[change | change source]
Most of Singapore are well-connected by a railway system known as the Mass Rapid Transit, or MRT in short. There are also taxi companies like Comfort Cabs, Silver Cab, SMRT Taxis, CityCab and Premier Taxi. There is one telephone number to call a taxi, of which the closest taxi from any company will respond. Apps such as Grab and Gojek as an alternative to taxi companies are also available.
The Singaporean land transport system is controlled by the LTA (Land Transport Authority) of Singapore.
Airport[change | change source]
The Singapore Changi Airport is the main airport of Singapore. It is in the east of Singapore, with a total of four terminals with airlines flying to many different parts of the world. It has also received many awards for being the best airport in the world. A Skytrain service is also available at the airport.
Notes[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Singapore". Retrieved 29 August 2019.
The city, once a distinct entity, so came to dominate the island that the Republic of Singapore essentially became a city-state.
- Population in Brief 2019
- "Environment". Base. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- "Population and Population Structure". Singstat. Department of Statistics Singapore. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- "DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY INCOME – GINI INDEX". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- "Republic of Singapore Independence Act, 1997 revised edition".
- "Language Programmes". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Our Garden City". National Parks Board, Singapore. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- Klein, Ezra (2017-04-25). "Is Singapore's "miracle" health care system the answer for America?". Vox. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "What other countries can learn from Singapore's schools". The Economist. 2018-08-30. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "A great place to live". www.edb.gov.sg. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- Flint, Sunshine. "Living in: Singapore". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
- "Early Names". www.sg. Archived from the original on 12 April 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- Cornelius-Takahama, Vernon (26 November 1999). "Sang Nila Utama". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- "Malayan Tiger". www.wrs.com.sg. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
- "No lions in Singapore but..." The Straits Times. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- Yong, Tan Tai. "Looking Back at 700 Years of Singapore". BiblioAsia. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- Sir Stamford Raffles Founded Singapore
- Trocki, Carl A. (2009). Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-134-50243-1.
- "Singapore – Founding and Early Years". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- Ng, Jenny (7 February 1997). "1819 – The February Documents". Ministry of Defence of Singapore. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "Milestones in Singapore's Legal History". Supreme Court of Singapore. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "Founding of Modern Singapore". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "East & South-East Asia Titles: Straits Settlements Annual Reports (Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan) 1855–1941". Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "The Malays". National Heritage Board 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- Sanderson, Reginald (1907). Wright, Arnold; Cartwright, H.A. (eds.). Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources. pp. 220–221.
- "First Rubber Trees are Planted in Singapore – 1877". History SG. National Library Board Singapore.
- The Indian Army in the Two World Wars. Brill Publishers. 14 October 2011. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-90-04-21145-2.
- "1915 Singapore Mutiny". National Library Board. National Library Board Singapore.
- Stille, Mark (2016). Malaya and Singapore 1941–42: The fall of Britain's empire in the East. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-4728-1124-0.
- Hobbs, David (2017). The British Pacific Fleet: The Royal Navy's Most Powerful Strike Force. Naval Institute Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-61251-917-3.
- Tan, Kevin (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A Biography. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-981-230-878-8.
- Lamb, Margaret; Tarling, Nicholas (2001). From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Origins of the Second World War in Europe and Asia. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4039-3772-8.
- Tan, Kevin (2008). Marshall of Singapore: A Biography. ISBN 978-981-230-878-8.
- "On This Day – 15 February 1942: Singapore forced to surrender". BBC News. 15 February 1942. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
- Wigmore 1957, p. 382. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWigmore1957 (help)
- Leitch Lepoer, Barbara (1989). "Singapore, Shonan: Light of the South". Library of Congress Country Studies. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Force 136 (Operation Gustavus in Malaya) | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "The real Japanese surrender" (PDF). The Sunday Times. Singapore. 4 September 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Home/Education/Fun stuff/Timeline". Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- "Singapore separates from Malaysia and becomes independent – Singapore History". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "Road to Independence". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Independence". Ministry of Information, Communication and the Arts. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "People's Action Party: Post-independence years | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
- "The Founding of ASEAN". ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Growing Our Economy – Economic Development". Ministry of Trade and Industry – Singapore. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Lee Kuan Yew (1998). The Singapore Story : memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Times Editions ; Singapore Press Holdings. ISBN 9812049835.
- Lee Kuan Yew (2000). From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000, Memoirs Of Lee Kuan Yew (Vol. 2). Singapore: Times Editions, Singapore Press Holdings. ISBN 9789812049841.
- "Singapore's founding father Lee Kuan Yew dies at 91". BBC News. 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "World Factbook – Singapore". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2009". Transparency International. 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- "The Singapore Legal System". Singapore Academy of Law. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "The President". Singaporean Government. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Members of Parliament". Government of Singapore. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Freedom in the World 2010 – Singapore". Freedom House. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Fernandez, Warren (2020-07-11). "GE2020: PAP wins 83 of 93 seats; WP takes two GRCs". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "The Singapore Legal System". Singapore Academy of Law. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- "Judicial caning in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei". World Corporal Punishment Research. 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Kuntz, Tom (26 June 1994). "Ideas & Trends; Beyond Singapore: Corporal Punishment, A to Z". The New York Times.
- "Singapore country specific information". U.S. Department of State. 19 March 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2004. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Hong Kong has best judicial system in Asia: business survey". ABS-CBN News. Philippines. Agence France-Presse. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Singapore Census 2010 Statistical Release 1" (PDF). Singapore Department of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- "Education and Language" (PDF). Singaporean government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Compulsory Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Secondary School Courses". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "MOE Language Centre Benefits". Ministry of Education, Singapore. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "Language Programmes". Ministry of Education, Singapore. 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Post-Secondary Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Pre-University Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "From Pre-University to University Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "General Household Survey 2015" (PDF). 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- hermes (10 March 2016). "English most common home language in Singapore, bilingualism also up: Government survey".
- Gupta, A.F. Fischer, K. (ed.). "Epistemic modalities and the discourse particles of Singapore" (DOC). Approaches to Discourse Particles. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 244–263.
- Oi, Mariko (5 October 2010). "Singapore's booming appetite to study Mandarin". BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Literacy and language Archived 2010-03-15 at WebCite, Singapore Census of Population, 2000. Singapore Department of Statistics (December 2000).
- "Trends in international migrant stock: The 2008 revision", United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009).
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Sorry, no English". Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- "What are some commonly misspelled English words? | ASK!". Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- A war of words is brewing over Singlish – TIME
- Singapore – Language Planning
- Afendras, Evangelos A.; Kuo, Eddie C.Y. (1980). Language and society in Singapore. Singapore University Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-016-8. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Leow, Bee Geok (2001). Census of Population 2000: Demographic Characteristics. p.47-49.
- "Population Trends 2009" Archived 2010-09-22 at the Wayback Machine, Singapore Department of Statistics. ISSN 1793-2424
- "Singapore Dining". App.www.sg. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- MeRadio on the iPhone, iPod touch, and the iPad on the iTunes App Store – Retrieved December 16, 2010
- "Foreign & Local Media in Singapore". Base. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- Our national flower – Retrieved December 11, 2010
- "Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "SIA bags world's best airline title". Straits Times. 18 July 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Singapore Girl – You're a Great Way To Fly". Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "PSA Singapore". Archived from the original on 2010-12-18. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- News about their joint agreement on English Wikinews
- Savage, Victor R.; Yeoh, Brenda S.A. (2004). Toponymics: A Study of Singapore's Street Names. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press. ISBN 9789812103642.
- "Bukit Timah Hill". Heritage Trails. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Forests, grasslands and drylands – Singapore" (PDF). World Resources Institute. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- "Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change: Singapore". Earthshots. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- "Interesting facts of our Garden City". Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "21st Century Singapore – Land Reclamation". ORACLE ThinkQuest. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Towards Environmental Sustainability, State of the Environment 2005 Report" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Singapore to adopt Dutch polder concept as new land reclamation method at Pulau Tekong". Deltares. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- "Singapore". The World Factbook. CIA. 1 September 2010. section Transnational issues. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
disputes persist with Malaysia over […] extensive land reclamation works
- About Singapore – Retrieved on 23 November 2010
- "WEATHERWise Singapore" (PDF). National Environment Agency. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Weather Statistics". National Environment Agency. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Singapore/Changi Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Singapore Missions Overseas". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Australia – New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (AANZFTA)". New Zealand Government. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- ASEAN rocks, a website showing Singapore's support of ASEAN Archived 2011-01-28 at the Wayback Machine – retrieved November 25, 2010
- Singapore in the Commonwealth – retrieved November 25, 2010
- Ministry of Manpower, Singapore. List of public holidays Retrieved on November 22, 2010
- Ministry of Education, Singapore. List of holidays
- About Singapore Flyer – Singapore Flyer Archived 2009-08-03 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved December 11, 2010
- Kaur, Karamjit (2017-03-21). "Changi's Jewel shaping up well for sparkling start in 2019". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 2017-12-25. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
- Eoghan, Macguire (13 August 2016). "Joseph Schooling beats Michael Phelps, wins Singapore's first Olympic gold". CNN. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "Joe Biden says US is 13th in the world for infrastructure quality, same rankings put S'pore first". mothership.sg. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
- "Taxi Companies in Singapore". Singapore Taxi. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- Land Transport Authority (16 July 2008). "One Common Taxi Number". Press release. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110527044240/http://app.lta.gov.sg/corp_press_content.asp?start=1970. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "About Us – Ridership". SBS Transit Ltd. 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "SMRT Website – Monthly total MRT Ridership". SMRT Corporation Ltd. 2010. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "About LTA". Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Changi named World's Best Airport". channelnewsasia.com. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Tan, Bonny (6 December 2001). "Changi International Airport – Singapore Infopedia". National Library Board Singapore. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
Other websites[change | change source]
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|