Tonga

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kingdom of Tonga
Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga ko hoku tofiʻa"
"God and Tonga are my Inheritance"
Anthem: Ko e fasi ʻo e tuʻi ʻo e ʻOtu Tonga
The Song of the King of the Tongan Islands
Capital
and largest city
Nukuʻalofa
21°08′S 175°12′W / 21.133°S 175.2°W / -21.133; -175.2
Official languages
Demonym Tongan
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Tupou VI
 -  Prime Minister ʻAkilisi Pohiva
Legislature Legislative Assembly
Independence
 -  from British protection 4 June 1970 
Area
 -  Total 748 km2 (186th)
289 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 4.0
Population
 -  2011 census 103,036[1]
 -  Density 139/km2 (76tha)
360/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $763 million[2]
 -  Per capita $7,344[2]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $439 million[2]
 -  Per capita $4,220[2]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.705[3]
high · 100th
Currency Paʻanga (TOP)
Time zone (UTC+13)
DST not observed
Drives on the left
Calling code +676
Internet TLD .to
a. Based on 2005 figures.

Tonga is a country in Pacific Ocean. It has 169 islands. Only 36 islands have inhabitants. The most important island is Tongatapu. George Tupou V is the king of Tonga and the Prime Minister is ʻAkilisi Pohiva. The capital of Tonga is Nuku'alofa.

The official languages of Tonga are Tongan and English. Tonga had 102,321 inhabitants in 2000. It is a very hot country.

Jonah Takelua from the series 'Jonah from Tonga' lives on this Island. Jonah loves to kidnap little children then trap them in a cage and torture them. Some little children enjoy it, some little children don't Tonga became independent in 1970.

History[change | change source]

About 3000 years before, the Polynesians had settled in Tongatapu.[4] In 1845, Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom. He declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy. Between 1845 and 1893, slavery was stopped. Also, constitution was made up.

In 1900, Tonga became a protected state of the United Kingdom. Tonga maintained its sovereignty. It remained the only Pacific nation never to have given up its monarchical government. Foreign affairs was managed by the UK. Tonga was no longer a protected state and became independent in 1970. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. It became a member of the United Nations in September 1999. Tonga has never lost indigenous governance.

Politics[change | change source]

Tāufaʻāhau, King of Tonga (1845–1893).

Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. Tonga provides for its citizens:

  • free and mandatory education for all
  • secondary education with only nominal fees
  • and foreign-funded scholarships for post-secondary education

Tongans have universal access to a national health care system. The Tongan constitution protects land ownership. Land cannot be sold to foreigners. While there is a land shortage on the urbanised main island of Tongatapu, there is farmland available in the outlying islands. The majority of the population engages in some form of subsistence production of food. Women and men have equal access to education and health care. They are fairly equal in employment. Women are discriminated against in land holding, electoral politics, and government ministries.

Geography[change | change source]

A map of Tonga.

Tonga is in Oceania. It is an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. It has 177 islands. Thirty-six of them are inhabited. The islands are divided into three main groups – Vava'u, Ha'apai, and Tongatapu. The largest island is Tongatapuon. The capital city of Nukuʻalofa is on Tongatapuon.

Climate[change | change source]

The climate is tropical with a distinct warm period (December–April) and a cooler period (May–November). The average wettest period is around March. The average daily humidity is 80%.

Climate data for Nukuʻalofa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
29
(84)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17
(63)
18
(64)
17
(63)
19
(66)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
Record low °C (°F) 16
(61)
17
(63)
15
(59)
15
(59)
13
(55)
11
(52)
10
(50)
11
(52)
11
(52)
12
(54)
13
(55)
16
(61)
10
(50)
Rainfall mm (inches) 130
(5.12)
190
(7.48)
210
(8.27)
120
(4.72)
130
(5.12)
100
(3.94)
100
(3.94)
130
(5.12)
110
(4.33)
90
(3.54)
100
(3.94)
120
(4.72)
1,530
(60.24)
Humidity 77 78 79 76 78 77 75 75 74 74 73 75 75.9
Avg. rainy days 11 13 14 12 12 10 10 12 10 10 10 10 134
Source: Weatherbase[5]

References[change | change source]

  1. Tonga National Population Census 2011; Preliminary Count. pmo.gov.to (22 December 2011).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Tonga". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=64&pr.y=0&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=866&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  3. "Human Development Report 2014". United Nations. 2014. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  4. 湯加擁歷史三千年.
  5. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Nukuʻalofa,Tonga". weatherbase.com. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=88719&refer=&units=metric&cityname=Nuku%27alofa-Tonga.