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Chains such as these were used to stop slaves from escaping

Slavery is an economic system. In it, some people must work for no pay. It is also a system of ownership. In many countries slaves were owned by citizens of the country. These people were slaves.

There is evidence that even before there was writing, there was slavery. There have been different types of slavery, and they have been in almost all cultures and continents.[1] Some societies had laws about slavery, or they had an economy that was built on it. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had many slaves.

During the 20th century almost all countries made laws forbidding slavery. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights says that slavery is wrong. Slavery is now banned by international law[2] Nevertheless, there are still different forms of slavery in some countries.[3]

The English word "slave" comes from the medieval word for the Slavic peoples of Central Europe and Eastern Europe, because these were the last ethnic group to be captured and enslaved in Central Europe.[4][5] According to Adam Smith and Auguste Comte, a slave was mainly defined as a captive or prisoner of war. Slave-holders used to buy slaves at slave auctions. Slaves are not allowed rights.

The Atlantic slave trade[change | change source]

For four centuries, beginning in the late 15th century, millions of Africans were taken as slaves by Europeans.[6] The Europeans were not the first to exploit Africa for manpower. Beginning in about 650 AD, Arab slave traders began taking slaves from Africa.[7] They dealt mainly in castrated male slaves (eunuchs).[7] According to Ronald Segal , author of Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora (2002), "The calipha in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace”.[7] By the 1900s, Arab slave traders had taken between 10 and 20 million slaves out of Africa.[7] It is not certain that European slave traders obtained black slaves from the Arab slave traders.[6] The Arabs concentrated mainly on supplying their own needs.[6] Europeans began exporting Africans to the New World as a source of cheap labor on colonial plantations.[6]

Between 1452 and 1455, Pope Nicolas V issued a series of papal bulls authorizing the Portuguese to take African slaves.[8] At first slave traders raided costal areas and carried black people off. But the mines and fields of the colonies needed more and more slaves. In the early 16th century Spain began to issue licenses and contracts to suply slaves. By the 1750s large slaving companies were established. Most of Europe at the time was involved in the slave trade.[8]

Slavery in the Americas[change | change source]

Many Europeans who arrived in North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came under contract as indentured servants.[9] The change from indentured servitude to slavery was a gradual process in Virginia. The earliest legal documentation of such a shift was in 1640. This is where a negro, John Punch, was sentenced to lifetime slavery for attempting to run away. This case also marked the disparate treatment of Africans as held by the Virginia County Court, where two white runaways received far lesser sentences.[10] After 1640, planters started to ignore the expiration of indentured contracts. They kept their servants as slaves for life. This was demonstrated by the case Johnson v. Parker. The court ruled that John Casor, an indentured servant, be returned to Johnson who claimed that Casor belonged to him for his life.[11][12] According to the 1860 U. S. census, 393,975 individuals, representing 8% of all US families, owned 3,950,528 slaves.[13] One-third of Southern families owned slaves.[14]

Slavery today[change | change source]

Millions of people are still slaves in some parts of the world, mostly in South Asia and Africa. It is less common in the developed world because of better law enforcement, but it still happens there as well. [3] The ways in which it is done have changed. Today, slaves may work because of things like a high debt (for example, slaves have to work to pay off a debt). Many victims are told that their families will be harmed if they report the slave owners. Many slaves are forced to be domestic servants. In some cases, their families sell them to the slave owners. Some slaves have been trafficked from one part of the world to another. These people are illegally in their host country, and therefore do not report the abuse. Forced prostitution is a type of slavery. Another form of slavery still happening today is forced child labor. Some children have to work in mines or in plantations, or they have to fight wars as child soldiers, for no pay.

One study says that there are 27 million people (but others say there could be as many as 200 million) in slavery today.[15]

Other terms that describe the recruitement of laborers, and that may have similarities to slavery are Blackbirding, Impressment and Shanghaiing.

Countries[change | change source]

Slave contract Lima/Peru 13/10/1794

Some of the countries where there is still slavery are in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.[16] In summer 2007, 570 people were found to be slaves for brick makers in China.[17] Of those freed, 69 were children.[18] The Chinese government made a force of 35,000 police check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, and sent lots of kiln supervisors and officials to prison and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing a worker who was a slave.[17]

In Mauritania, it is thought that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are slaves, and that many of them are used as bonded labour.[19][20] Slavery in Mauritania was made illegal in August 2007.[21] In Niger, there is also much slavery. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are slaves, almost 8% of the population.[22][23][24] Child slavery has commonly been used when making cash crops and mining. According to the United States Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in 'the worst forms of child labour' in 2002.[25]

Slave policy[change | change source]

Slave auction in Rome, a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme

They start at about US$40, in Mali, for young adult male workers. A young woman or a girl may sell for as much as US$1,000 in Thailand.[26] In 1850 in the United States, a slave could have been US$1,000 — about $25,800 today.

In November 2006, the International Labour Organization said that it would prosecute members of the junta that rules Myanmar (also called Burma) at the International Court of Justice for "Crimes against Humanity". This is because the military makes some citizens do forced labour.[27][28] The International Labour Organisation says that it thinks that about 800,000 people are forced to work this way.[29][30]

Stopping slavery[change | change source]

An agitation called Abolitionism against slavery began in Christian countries in the 18th century. First they abolished the slave trade so more people wouldn't become slaves. In 1833, the British Empire stopped slavery. Several other countries followed. In the United States, disagreement over slavery led to the American Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1865, when the North won, all slaves were made free. Still more countries abolished slavery afterwards. Pedro II of Brazil abolished it in 1888. Forced labor however continued, either against the law or by debt peonage or other methods which the laws of the various countries did not count as slavery.

A slave who was beaten very badly. The person who hit him worked for his owner.

Famous people who were slaves[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Historical survey > Slave-owning societies. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. "Slavery Convention". The United Nations. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'
  4. slave,, retrieved 26 March 2009
  5. Merriam-Webster's,, retrieved 18 August 2009
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Elikia M’bokolo. "The impact of the slave trade on Africa". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 A. Moore (2 June 2014). "10 Facts About The Arab Enslavement Of Black People Not Taught In Schools". Atlanta Black Star. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "African Laborers for a New Empire: Iberia, Slavery, and the Atlantic World". Lowcountry Digital Library. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  9. Indentured Servitude in Colonial America. Deanna Barker, Frontier Resources.
  10. Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  11. Foner, Philip S. (1980). History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom. Oxford University Press.
  12. Selling Poor Steven. Philip Burnham, American Heritage Magazine.
  13. 1860 Census Results, The Civil War Home Page.
  14. [1] "Small Truth Papering Over a Big Lie"
  15. Kevin Bales, Disposable People
  16. "Does Slavery Still Exist?". Anti-Slavery Society. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Convictions in China slave trial". BBC. July 17, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  18. Zhe, Zhu (June 15, 2007). "More than 460 rescued from brick kiln slavery". China Daily. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  19. Mauritania made slavery illegal last month
  20. The Abolition season on BBC World Service
  21. Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  22. The Shackles of Slavery in Niger
  23. Born to be a slave in Niger
  24. BBC World Service | Slavery Today
  25. U.S. Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005 Human Rights Report on Côte d'Ivoire
  26. Slavery Today. ed. Auriana Ojeda. Greenhaven Press 2004.
  27. "ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities". Reuters. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
  28. ILO asks Myanmar to declare forced labour banned
  29. ILO cracks the whip at Yangon
  30. Critics: Myanmar biofuel drive uses forced labor