Eunuch

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A eunuch is a castrated man. His genitals have been removed. This can be cutting off the testicles.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] The term "castration" is sometimes used to refer to emasculation where both the testicles and the penis are removed together.

Harem Ağası, head of the black eunuchs of the Ottoman Imperial Harem.

Over the millennia since, eunuchs had a lot of different functions in different cultures such as domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, government officials, military commanders, and guardians of women or harem servants. When eunuchs ran a harem, a monarch could be sure he was the one who fathered his wives' children since eunuchs were always infertile.

In Byzantine art, angels and eunuchs were often shown in a similar light and manner.[26]

References[change | change source]

  1. Matignon, J.-J. (1896). "Les eunuques du Palais Impérial à Pékin". Bulletins de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris. IV (in https://books.google.com/books?id=XpA2AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA335&dq=%22unguibus+et+rostro and +tr%C3%A8s+vraisemblablement.%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiJopPPppz5AhXAXvEDHZ_xCgMQ6AF6BAgGEAM). https://archive.org/stream/bulletinsetmmo407sociuoft/bulletinsetmmo407sociuoft_djvu.txt. 7: 325–336. doi:10.3406/bmsap.1896.5645. {{cite journal}}: External link in |language= and |location= (help)CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  2. Archives d'anthropologie criminelle, de médecine légale et de psychologie normale et pathologique, Volume 11. 1896. p. 704.
  3. Lancette française: Gazette des hopitaux civils et militaires, Volume 69. 1896. p. 762.
  4. Vallettee, Alfred Louis Edmond, ed. (1900). Mercure de France, Volume 35. p. 503.
  5. Mercure de France: Série moderne, Volume 35. 1900. p. 503.
  6. Matignon, Jean-Jacques (1900). Superstition, crime et misère en Chine. Vol. 20 of Bibliothèque de criminologie (2 ed.). A. Storck et cie. p. 272.
  7. Matignon, Jean-Jacques (1899). Superstitions, crime et misère en Chine,... Storck. p. 200.
  8. Matignon, Jean-Jacques (1896). Les eunuques du Palais Impérial a Pékin. Gounouilhou. p. 12.
  9. Matignon, Jean-Jacques (1902). Superstition. A. Storck & Cie. p. 267.
  10. Morat, Jean Pierre; Doyon, Maurice (1918). Traité de physiologie, Volume 5. Masson et cie.
  11. Archives de l'anthropologie criminelle et des sciences pénales, Volume 11. G. Masson. 1896. p. 704.
  12. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen, Volume 30. Vol. 1-105 of Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Biologie ... Abteilung D. J. Springer. 1910. p. 250.
  13. Wilhelm Roux's Archives of Developmental Biology, Volume 30. Springer-Verlag. 1910. p. 250.
  14. Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen, Volume 30. Vol. 1-105 of Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Biologie ... Abteilung D. Contributor Wilhelm Roux. Wilhelm Engelmann. 1910. p. 250.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. The China Medical Missionary Journal, Volume 6, Issue 3. Contributor Bo yi hui. Kelly & Walsh. 1892. p. 207.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  16. The Military Surgeon: Journal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, Volumes 34-35. Contributor Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. The Association. 1914. p. 112.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. Military Medicine, Volume 34. Contributor Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Association of Military Surgeons, United States. 1914. p. 112.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. Wilson, Jean D.; Roehrborn, Claus (1 December 1999). "Long-Term Consequences of Castration in Men: Lessons from the Skoptzy and the Eunuchs of the Chinese and Ottoman Courts". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 84 (12): 4324–433. doi:10.1210/jcem.84.12.6206.
  19. Junne, George H. (2016). The Black Eunuchs of the Ottoman Empire: Networks of Power in the Court of the Sultan. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 978-0857728081.
  20. Chiang, Howard (2018). After Eunuchs: Science, Medicine, and the Transformation of Sex in Modern China (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231546331.
  21. Wu, Liande (1918). North Manchurian Plague Prevention Service Reports. Tientsin Press Limited. p. 260.
  22. Adam, Andrew E. (2018). Thomas Cochrane and the Dragon Throne: Confronting disease, distrust and murderous rebellion in Imperial China. SPCK. ISBN 978-0281080373.
  23. Dale, Melissa S. (2018). Inside the World of the Eunuch: A Social History of the Emperor's Servants in Qing China. Book collections on Project MUSE (illustrated, reprint ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-9888455751.
  24. Patwardhan, Sujata; Sawant, Ajit; Ismail, Mohammed (Jul–Sep 2007). "Chronic urinary retention in eunuchs". Indian Journal of Urology : IJU : Journal of the Urological Society of India. 23 (3): 317–318. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.33733. PMC 2721615. PMID 19718339.
  25. Li, Lillian M. (2012). "The Garden of Perfect Brightness-1 The Yuanmingyuan as Imperial Paradise (1700-1860)". Visualizing Cultures. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  26. Brown, Amelia R. "Painting the Bodiless: Angels and Eunuchs in Byzantine Art and Culture". Inter-disciplinary.net – via www.academia.edu.

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