Mamluks are members of a military caste that controlled Egypt from 1254 to 1811. Other mamluks held power in some other Muslim countries. The word means "slave" in the Arabic language and the caste was first made up of slaves. Muhammad Ali Pasha defeated them and took control of Egypt in 1811.
Other websites[change | change source]
- Qur'an Carpet Page; al-Fatihah is an Islamic holy book that was owned by Mamluks from the 1300s