|Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Maṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"My country, my country, my country"
and largest city
|-||President||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi|
|-||Acting Prime Minister||Ibrahim Mahlab|
|-||Upper house||Shura Council (dissolved)|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives (dissolved)|
|-||Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
|c. 3200 BC|
|-||Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated||9 July 1805|
the United Kingdom
|28 February 1922|
|-||Republican regime||18 June 1953|
|-||Revolution Day||25 January 2011|
|-||Current Constitution||18 January 2014|
|-||Total||1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi
|-||2015 estimate||90,120,000 (14th)|
|-||2006 census||76,699,427 (total)
incl. 3,901,396 abroad
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|HDI (2010)|| 0.620
medium · 101st
|Currency||Egyptian pound (EGP)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2 (No DST Since 2011))|
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.eg, مصر.|
|a.^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.
b.^ De facto interim head of state.
c.^ Densities are based on 2006 population figures. The gap between arithmetic and real densities is due to the fact that 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.
History[change | change source]
Egypt has been an independent country since 1922. It is a member of the United Nations and the Arab League. It was a republic from 1952 after the revolution of 1952 led by General Muhammad Naguib, who became the first President.
Geography[change | change source]
Egypt, is a large country, but a large portion of it is desert. Most people live in areas around the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and along the Nile River. This includes the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan, and Port Said. Not many people live in the desert. Today, Egypt has about 90 million people.
Egypt is divided into 29 areas, called Governorates of Egypt.
Politics[change | change source]
Egypt is a country which has had many different rulers and many political systems. Here is a summary of its political history since World War II. After this war, Egypt was ruled by a king, Farouk of Egypt (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965). He was the last ruler of the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
Farouk was overthrown on 23 July 1952 by a military coup. The coup was led by Muhammad Naguib, and Gamal Abdel Nasser. From then on, Egypt had military rulers or rulers who had the backing of the army and many citizens.
Nasser became President, from 1956 to 1970. Later rulers were Anwar Sadat, and Hosni Mubarak. After Mubarak came a change. In 2012, an attempt was made to have a democratic election for the post of President. The winner was the Moslem Brotherhood candidate, Mohamed Morsi. The events which followed are still controversial, but one aspect stands out. Morsi issued a declaration that in effect gave him unlimited powers. He had the power to legislate (make laws) without any legal overview by the courts. This caused widespread protests. On 3 July 2013 he was unseated by a military coup council (a coup d'état). After an election in June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became President of Egypt. Islamist movements, such as the Muslim Brotherhood, rejected the change of regime as a military coup, and not democratic.
Mohamed Morsi is currently under sentence of death, though this may not be carried out.
Revolution of 2011[change | change source]
In January 2011, thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo. They wanted Hosni Mubarak to leave office. He had been the President for almost 30 years. On February 11, 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman made an announcement. He said that Mubarak agreed to leave office.
Demographics[change | change source]
Religion[change | change source]
Languages[change | change source]
Famous people[change | change source]
Many famous people are from Egypt. Some of these include Omar Sharif, who was an international actor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was the first person from Africa to lead the United Nations, and four Nobel Prize winners: Anwar Sadat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978, Naguib Mahfouz, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999, and Mohamed ElBaradei, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005.
Governorates[change | change source]
Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are divided into regions. The regions have towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital. Sometimes capital has the same name as the governorate.
Culture[change | change source]
Egypt is a country with an immense cultural mix. There are many differences between life in the countryside as compared with life in the large cities. There are differences between the families which are Muslim, and the smaller number which are Coptic Christians. There are noticeable differences in the standards of education. Families are close-knit, and look after each other.
Tourism[change | change source]
Tourism is one of the most important national incomes in Egypt. In 2008, about 12 million tourists visited Egypt providing nearly $12 billion of national income to Egypt. Tourism affects the economy of the country as a whole.
Transport[change | change source]
There are methods of transport in Egypt.
Metro[change | change source]
Cairo Metro is one of the most important projects in Egypt. It consists of 3 lines. Metro is the most preferable transport in Egypt due to persistent major traffic jams in the streets of Cairo.
A Metro line 4 is right now being developed and expected to be active in future reaching New Cairo District.
Air transport[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Background Note: Egypt". United States Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. 10 November 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Goldschmidt, Arthur (1988). Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86531-182-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=YmZyAAAAMAAJ&q=state. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity."
- Pierre Crabitès (1935). Ibrahim of Egypt. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-81121-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=1NbCRckI3EoC&pg=PA1. Retrieved 20 February 2014. "... on July 9, 1805, Constantinople conferred upon Muhammad Ali the pashalik of Cairo ..."
- "Population Clock". Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. 27 April 2013. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Indicators from final results of 2006 pop. Census compared with 1996 Census" (PDF). Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/ows-img2/htms/pdf/finalpop/5,7.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Egypt". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=82&pr.y=11&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=469&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- Hope, Christopher; Swinford, Steven (15 February 2011). "WikiLeaks: Egypt's new man at the top 'was against reform'". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8326225/WikiLeaks-Egypts-new-man-at-the-top-was-against-reform.html. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Constitutional Proclamation". Egypt State Information Service. 13 February 2011. http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Story.aspx?sid=53709. Retrieved 5 March 2011. "The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally."
- de Blij, H. J.; Murphy, Alexander B.; Fouberg, Erin H. (2006). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 38. ISBN 9780471679516.
- Namatalla, Ahmed A; Mariam Fam and Zainab Fattah (2011-02-11). "Mubarak Resigns as Egyptian President". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-11/mubarak-leaves-presidency-hands-power-to-egypt-s-military-suleiman-says.html. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared", Reuters Africa. (2009-10-20)
- "Underground, Everything That Life Above Is Not", NY Times. Retrieved May 3, 2012
- "Egypt's traffic: The problem grinds on", AhramOnline. Retrieved 8 Oct 2012
- "Cairo Metro, Egypt", Railway Technology.