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|Sublime Ottoman State|
دولت عالیه عثمانیه
Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye
دولت ابد مدت
("The Eternal State")
Ottoman imperial anthem
Borders in 1609, see: list of territories
|•||1281–1326 (first)||Osman I|
|•||1918–22 (last)||Mehmed VI|
|•||1320–31 (first)||Alaeddin Pasha|
|•||1920–22 (last)||Ahmed Tevfik Pasha|
|•||Succeeded ||July 24, 1923|
|•||1680||5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi)|
|Currency||Akçe, Kuruş, Lira|
|Today part of||Turkey|
|Timeline of the Ottoman Empire|
|Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply|
The Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299 to 1923. It was centered in Turkey and controlled the eastern and southern lands around the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was founded by Osman I around 1299, and was most powerful from around 1400 to 1600, when it controlled trade and politics in southeastern Europe, southwest Asia, and northern Africa. Suleiman the Magnificent was one of the most powerful rulers.
The empire was a collection of conquered countries. The Sultan sent governors to rule these countries or provinces, with titles such as Pasha or Bey. The most famous in the early 19th century was Muhammad Ali Pasha. Besides provinces, the empire also had tributary states.
In later years, the Ottoman Empire began to weaken. In the later part of the 19th century became known as "the sick man of Europe". The empire was defeated in World War I and broke into pieces.
Sultan's family[change | change source]
The empire was a hereditary monarchy. The ruler's title was 'Sultan'. In the early years of the empire, shahzadahs, the sons of the Sultan, were sent to different parts of the empire (Sanjaks) to get experience of governing. Later they might be candidates for the Sultanate and Caliphate.
After Ahmed this system changed. In the new system the Sultan would keep his male relatives locked in a small apartment called a kafes where they would never be able to see the outside world, and would therefore be unable to take power from him. Often, a new Sultan would have his male relatives killed, a simpler solution since it removed competition for the Sultanate and prevented rebel movements. However, the women in his harem often sought greater status and influence, and the Sultan's mother might become a powerful political force in the Empire. Each mother in the harem would try to make her own son the next Sultan, since they knew he would probably be killed if he was not.
The Sultans gradually lost their ability to govern far-away territories well. Distant governors did whatever they wanted and made their own laws instead of obeying the Sultan. By its end, the Ottoman Empire grew so worn out and corrupt that it was ready to collapse.
Capital of Ottoman empire[change | change source]
Bursa was the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. Edirne in Thrace became the capital city of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, until Istanbul was conquered by the Turks and became the empire's final capital.
Vassal states[change | change source]
Many places were vassal states to the empire rather than being directly ruled. These included Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, (Romania), Caucasus (Georgia, Dagestan, and Chechnya). Their rulers received a degree of independence and autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. The price for this autonomy was more money (tax or tribute) paid to the Sultan.
References[change | change source]
- The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) afforded a small existence to the Ottoman Empire. The ending of the Ottoman Sultanate in November 1, 1922, did not end the Ottoman State, but only the Ottoman dynasty. The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923). It recognized the new "Ankara government", and not the old Constantinople-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The TBMM declared the successor state to be the "Republic of Turkey" (October 29, 1923), less than a month after its international recognition as a state.
Other websites[change | change source]
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- The Ottoman Empire: A Chronogical Outline
- The Ottoman Empire: The Eternal State
- Ottoman Website
- History of Turkish Empire — gives detailed timetable.
- Turkish Oral Narrative
- Information about Ottomans
- Forced population transfers in early Ottoman imperial policy - covers the period 1300-1600
- Turkey in Asia is an old book in English from 1920
- Ottoman Empire Citizendium