Armenia

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Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun  (Armenian)
Anthem: 
Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
"Our Fatherland"
Location of Armenia
Capital
and largest city
Yerevan
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
Official languages Armenian[1]
Ethnic groups (2011)
Religion Armenian Apostolic Church[4]
Demonym Armenian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic[5][6][7]
Armen Sarkissian
Ara Babloyan
Nikol Pashinyan
Legislature National Assembly
Formation and independence
• Traditional date
2492 BC
1500–1290 BC
14th century–1190 BC
860–590 BC
6th century BC
190 BC[12]
52–428
885–1045
1198–1375

28 May 1918
• Independence from the Soviet Union
23 August 1990Template:Padlsup
21 September 1991Template:Padlsup
26 December 1991Template:Padlsup
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
Area
• Total
29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)
• Water (%)
4.71[13]
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,924,816[14]
• 2011 census
Decrease 3,018,854[15][16] (134th)
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$27.212 billion[17]
• Per capita
$9,098[17]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$11.037 billion[17]
• Per capita
$3,690[17]
Gini (2013) 31.5[18]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.743[19]
high · 84th
Currency Dram (֏) (AMD)
Time zone AMT (UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +374
Patron saint St. Gregory
ISO 3166 code AM
Internet TLD .am .հայ
  1. Declared sovereignty.
  2. Declared independence via a referendum
  3. Independence was officially widely recognized after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The current constitution was adopted on 5 July 1995.

Armenia [20] is officially the Republic of Armenia. It is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It is in West Asia[21][22] on the Armenian Highlands,

Armenia is bordered by Turkey to the west and Georgia to the north. The de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan is to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.[23]

Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state. It has an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.[24][25][26] The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301.[27]

Between the 16th century and 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule.

During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[28][29] The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.

Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Constitution of the Republic of Armenia". President of the Republic of Armenia. 6 December 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2018. 
  2. Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (Yerevan 2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE. Archived copy at WebCite (16 April 2010).
  3. Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information". As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority".
  4. "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church" http://www.parliament.am/parliament.php?id=constitution&lang=eng
  5. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns. United States: University of California, San Diego. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~mshugart/semi-presidentialism.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  6. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK) 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1057%2Fpalgrave.fp.8200087.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017. "Table 1 shows that dissolution power as a presidential initiative is rare in the contemporary president-parliamentary systems. In fact, only in Armenia may the president dissolve (once per year) without a trigger (e.g. assembly failure to invest a government).". 
  7. Markarov, Alexander (2016). "Semi-presidentialism in Armenia" (PDF). In Elgie, Robert; Moestrup, Sophia. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK (published 15 May 2016). pp. 61–90. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-38781-3_3. ISBN 978-1-137-38780-6. LCCN 2016939393. OCLC 6039792321. Retrieved 8 October 2017. Markarov discusses the formation and development of the semi-presidential system in Armenia since its foundation in 1991. The author identifies and compares the formal powers of the president, prime minister, and parliament under the 1995 Constitution as well as the amendments introduced through the Constitutional referendum in 2005. Markarov argues that the highly presidentialized semi-presidential system that was introduced in the early 1990s gradually evolved into a Constitutionally more balanced structure. However, in practice, the president has remained dominant and backed by a presidential majority; the president has thus been able to set the policy agenda and implement his preferred policy. 
  8. Lang, David Marshall. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970, p. 114. ISBN 0-04-956007-7.
  9. Redgate, Anna Elizabeth. The Armenians. Cornwall: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 16–19, 23, 25, 26 (map), 30–32, 38, 43 ISBN 0-631-22037-2.
  10. Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians (Reprint ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 0-631-22037-2. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians. 
  11. de Laet, Sigfried J.; Herrmann, Joachim, eds. (1996). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9789231028120. The ruler of the part known as Greater Armenia, Artaxias (Artashes), the founder of a new dynasty, managed to unite the country... 
  12. Encyclopedia Americana: Ankara to Azusa. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2005. p. 393. It was named for Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who founded the kingdom of Armenia about 190 B.C. 
  13. "The World Fact Book – Armenia". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  14. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  15. "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  16. "Armenia Population". countrymeters.info. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2018. 
  18. "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  19. "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations. 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  20. Armenia. Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2015.
  21. Central Intelligence Agency."The CIA World Factbook 2015" Skyhorse Publishing Inc, 2014. ISBN 1-62914-903-9
  22. The UN classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook "Armenia". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  "Armenia". National Geographic. , "Armenia". Encyclopædia Britannica. , Calendario Atlante De Agostini (in Italian) (111 ed.). Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 2015. p. sub voce. ISBN 9788851124908.  and Oxford Reference Online "Oxford Reference". Oxford Reference Online. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001/acref-9780199546091-e-652 (inactive 2017-09-23). Retrieved 20 October 2012.  also place Armenia in Asia.
  23. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-19-510507-0. 
  24. (Garsoïan, Nina (1997). ed. R.G. Hovannisian, ed. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 81, Vol. 1. )
  25. Stringer, Martin D. (2005). A Sociological History of Christian Worship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-81955-5. 
  26. Smaller nations that have claimed a prior official adoption of Christianity include Osroene, the Silures, and San Marino. See Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity.
  27. Grousset, René (1947). Histoire de l'Arménie (1984 ed.). Payot. p. 122. . Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p. 82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  28. The republic has separation of church and state
  29. "The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, Article 8.1". President.am. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 

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