|Republic of Armenia
Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun (Armenian)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2011)|
|Religion||Armenian Apostolic Church|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Formation and independence|
• Traditional date
|14th century–1190 BC|
|6th century BC|
28 May 1918
• Independence from the Soviet Union
|23 August 1990Template:Padlsup
21 September 1991Template:Padlsup
26 December 1991Template:Padlsup
|21 December 1991|
|2 March 1992|
|29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2015)|| 0.743
high · 84th
|Currency||Dram (֏) (AMD)|
|Time zone||AMT (UTC+4)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Patron saint||St. Gregory|
|ISO 3166 code||AM|
|Internet TLD||.am .հայ|
Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan; officially called the Republic of Azerbaijan) is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It is next to Russia in the north, Georgia, Armenia, in the west, Iran in the south, and Caspian Sea on the east. Its capital city is Baku. Azerbaijan became independent from the Soviet Union when it ended in 1991.
Most of Azerbaijan's land is in Western Asia. It is called an Asian country by the United Nations.
However, because it is close and its history is related to Europe, Azerbaijan is also a member of a number of European groups, including the Council of Europe since 2001. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries. They have membership in 38 international organizations. On May 9, 2006 Azerbaijan was elected to membership in the newly made Human Rights Council by the United Nations General Assembly.
More than 90% of the people are ethnic Azerbaijanis. Minorities include Russians, Georgians and other minorities. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not say there is an official religion. But, Shia Islam, is by far the largest religion in the country, followed by Sunni Islam. There are also a small amount of Christians (mainly Eastern Orthodox), Jews (mainly Ashkenazi), agnostics and atheists.
- 1 History
- 2 Biodiversity
- 3 Education
- 4 Culture
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Divisions
- 7 Economy
- 8 Related pages
- 9 References
- 10 Other websites
History[change | change source]
Since the early 19th century many Russians settled in Azerbaijan, but after the end of the Soviet Union with the independence of Azerbaijan which is back in control, most Russians and other minorities have left the country and are continuing to leave the country.
Biodiversity[change | change source]
There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse. It is a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse native to Azerbaijan. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. However today the horse is an endangered species.
Azerbaijan's flora is more than 4,500 species of higher plants. Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the flora is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other countries of the South Caucasus. About 67 percent of the species growing in the whole Caucasus can be in Azerbaijan.
Education[change | change source]
Many Azerbaijanis have some form of higher education, most notably in scientific and technical subjects. According to Soviet data, 100 percent of males and females (ages nine to forty-nine) were literate (able to read) in 1970. In 2009, the literacy rate in Azerbaijan was 99.5 percent.
Culture[change | change source]
The culture of Azerbaijan has come about as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well kept in the country. Some of the main parts of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, and movies.
Music and folk dances[change | change source]
Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that goes back nearly a thousand years. Among national musical instruments there are 14 string instruments, eight percussion instruments and six wind instruments.
Mugham, meykhana and Ashiq are some of the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. Mugham is music with poetry and instrumental interludes. When performing Mugham, the singers have to bring their emotions into singing and music. Mugham singer Alim Qasimov is one of the five best singers of all time. Meykhana is a song with no music. It is usually done by several people. They make up the words about a particular subject. Ashiq joins poetry, storytelling, dance and vocal and instrumental music. It is as a symbol of Azerbaijani culture.
Architecture[change | change source]
Azerbaijani architecture typically joins East and West. Many ancient treasures such as the Maiden Tower and Palace of the Shirvanshahs in the Walled City of Baku survive in modern Azerbaijan. Plans have been shown for the building of the Azerbaijan Tower. It will reportedly replace the Burj Khalifa as the tallest building in the world. The planned height is 1,050 metres (3,440 ft).
Movies[change | change source]
The movie industry in Azerbaijan dates back to 1898. In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in making movies. In 1991, after Azerbaijan gained its freedom from the Soviet Union, the first Baku International Film Festival East-West was held in Baku.
Food[change | change source]
The traditional food is famous for many vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro (coriander), dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular. They are often served with main dishes on the table. National dishes show the variety of the landscape. They are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and the many seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.
Literature[change | change source]
The earliest known person in Azerbaijani literature was Hasanoghlu or Pur Hasan Asfaraini. He made a divan of Persian and Turkic ghazals. Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in 14th century. Among the poets of this period were Gazi Burhanaddin and Haqiqi. The famed Book of Dede Korkut has two manuscripts copied in the 16th century. It is a collection of 12 stories showing the oral tradition of Oghuz nomads.
The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Akinchi was published in 1875.
Sports[change | change source]
Sport in Azerbaijan is very old. Even now, both traditional and modern sports are still practiced. Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally said to be Azerbaijan's national sport. The most popular sports in Azerbaijan are football and chess. The national football team does not do well in international competitions. On March 19, 2010, Azerbaijan won the bid to host the 2012 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup.
Demographics[change | change source]
|Ethnic composition (2009)|
Divisions[change | change source]
Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities. 11 cities are under the direct authority of the republic. Azerbaijan includes the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The President of Azerbaijan picks the governors of these units. The government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Note: The cities under the direct authority of the republic in italics.
Economy[change | change source]
The economy of Azerbaijan is based on industry, agriculture, and on services including tourism. The energy sector based on the large reserves of crude oil and natural gas, is the main source of economic growth in Azerbaijan today, though half of the Azerbaijani people earn their income directly or indirectly through services and a third earn their income through agriculture. The energy boom has led to massive foreign direct investment and the growth rate of the Azerbaijani economy is one of the world's highest.
After gaining independence in 1991 with the end of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan made the long and difficult change from a command economy to a market economy. The government has largely completed privatization of agricultural lands and small, medium and large state-owned companies. Azerbaijan is continuing making economic reforms, and old economic ties and structures have been slowly replaced. With independence, Azerbaijan became a member of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Islamic Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Azerbaijan's currency is the Azerbaijani manat (AZN) which is divided into 100 qəpik. It became the national currency in 1992 and replaced the old Soviet ruble. The Central Bank of Azerbaijan was created in 1992. The Central Bank serves as Azerbaijan's central bank, and is responsible for printing and distributing the national currency, the Azerbaijani manat, and to control all commercial banks.
Related pages[change | change source]
- Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918-1920)
- Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920-1991)
- Azerbaijan at the Olympics
- Water bodies of Azerbaijan
References[change | change source]
- "Constitution of the Republic of Armenia". President of the Republic of Armenia. 6 December 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (Yerevan 2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE. Archived copy at WebCite (16 April 2010).
- Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information". As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority".
- "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church" http://www.parliament.am/parliament.php?id=constitution&lang=eng
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns. United States: University of California, San Diego. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~mshugart/semi-presidentialism.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK) 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1057%2Fpalgrave.fp.8200087.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017. "Table 1 shows that dissolution power as a presidential initiative is rare in the contemporary president-parliamentary systems. In fact, only in Armenia may the president dissolve (once per year) without a trigger (e.g. assembly failure to invest a government).".
- Markarov, Alexander (2016). "Semi-presidentialism in Armenia" (PDF). In Elgie, Robert; Moestrup, Sophia. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK (published 15 May 2016). pp. 61–90. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-38781-3_3. ISBN 978-1-137-38780-6. LCCN 2016939393. OCLC 6039792321. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
Markarov discusses the formation and development of the semi-presidential system in Armenia since its foundation in 1991. The author identifies and compares the formal powers of the president, prime minister, and parliament under the 1995 Constitution as well as the amendments introduced through the Constitutional referendum in 2005. Markarov argues that the highly presidentialized semi-presidential system that was introduced in the early 1990s gradually evolved into a Constitutionally more balanced structure. However, in practice, the president has remained dominant and backed by a presidential majority; the president has thus been able to set the policy agenda and implement his preferred policy.
- Lang, David Marshall. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970, p. 114. ISBN 0-04-956007-7.
- Redgate, Anna Elizabeth. The Armenians. Cornwall: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 16–19, 23, 25, 26 (map), 30–32, 38, 43 ISBN 0-631-22037-2.
- Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians (Reprint ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 0-631-22037-2.
However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.
- de Laet, Sigfried J.; Herrmann, Joachim, eds. (1996). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9789231028120.
The ruler of the part known as Greater Armenia, Artaxias (Artashes), the founder of a new dynasty, managed to unite the country...
- Encyclopedia Americana: Ankara to Azusa. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2005. p. 393.
It was named for Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who founded the kingdom of Armenia about 190 B.C.
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- "Azerbaijan: Biodiversity". Central Asia and Caucasus Institute. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
- "The Karabakh Horse". Karabakh Foundation.
- "Azerbaijan – Flora". Heydar Aliyev Foundation. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
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|chapterurl=missing title (help). An Oriental Biographical Dictionary. W.H.Allen. p. 311. Unknown parameter
- A.Caferoglu, "Adhari(azeri)",in Encyclopedia of Islam, (new edition), Vol. 1, (Leiden, 1986)
- Michael E. Meeker, “The Dede Korkut Ethic”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1992), 395–417.
- İlker Evrım Bınbaş,Encyclopædia Iranica, "Oguz Khan Narratives" Encyclopædia Iranica | Articles, accessed October, 2010. "The Ketāb-e Dede Qorqut, which is a collection of twelve stories reflecting the oral traditions of the Turkmens in the 15th-century eastern Anatolia, is also called Oḡuz-nāma"
- FIFA (March 19, 2010). "FIFA Executive Committee approves special funding for Chile and Haiti". Press release. https://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/federation/bodies/media/newsid=1183198.html#fifa+executive+committee+approves+special+funding+chile+haiti. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
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Other websites[change | change source]
General information[change | change source]
- Azerbaijan International
- Heydar Aliyev Foundation
- Armenia at the Open Directory Project
- CIA World Factbook information about Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijan at University of Colorado at Boulder
- Country profile from BBC
Major government resources[change | change source]
- President of Azerbaijan website
- Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee
- United Nations Office in Azerbaijan
Major news media[change | change source]
Tourism[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Armenia.|
|The Simple English Wiktionary has a definition for: Azerbaijan.|