Armenia

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Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun  (Armenian)
Anthem: 
Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
"Our Fatherland"
Location of Armenia
Capital
and largest city
Yerevan
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
Official languages Armenian[1]
Ethnic groups (2011)
Religion Armenian Apostolic Church[4]
Demonym Armenian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic[5][6][7]
Serzh Sargsyan
Ara Babloyan
Karen Karapetyan
Legislature National Assembly
Formation and independence
• Traditional date
2492 BC
1500–1290 BC
14th century–1190 BC
860–590 BC
6th century BC
190 BC[12]
52–428
885–1045
1198–1375

28 May 1918
• Independence from the Soviet Union
23 August 1990Template:Padlsup
21 September 1991Template:Padlsup
26 December 1991Template:Padlsup
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
Area
• Total
29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)
• Water (%)
4.71[13]
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,924,816[14]
• 2011 census
Decrease 3,018,854[15][16] (134th)
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$26.560 billion[17]
• Per capita
$8,881[17]
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$10.754 billion[17]
• Per capita
$3,595[17]
Gini (2013) 31.5[18]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.743[19]
high · 84th
Currency Dram (֏) (AMD)
Time zone AMT (UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +374
Patron saint St. Gregory
ISO 3166 code AM
Internet TLD .am .հայ
  1. Reformed orthography.[20]
  2. Declared sovereignty.
  3. Declared independence via a referendum
  4. Independence was officially widely recognized after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The current constitution was adopted on 5 July 1995.

Armenia (officially called the Republic of Armenia) is a country in the western part of Asia. Its capital city is Yerevan. Armenia received its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Armenia touches Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.

There are some minorities living in Armenia, such as Greek, Russian, and other minorities, and more than 90% of the people are ethnic Armenians. Also, the Armenian Apostolic Church, is by far the largest religion in the country. There is a small amount of other Christians, Muslims and atheists.

Armenia is the place that some Christians believe Noah's Ark landed, and Noah's family settled. The Armenian name for Armenia (Hayastan) means Land of Haik. Haik was the name of a great-great-grandson of Noah.

Throughout history, Armenia's size has changed many times. Today Armenia is much smaller than it was once. In 80 BCE, the Kingdom of Armenia covered parts of what is today Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and, of course, Armenia.

From 1920 to 1991, Armenia was a member of the Soviet Union.

Today, Armenia's borders are locked with Turkey and Azerbaijan, due to conflicts. In 1992, Armenia and Azerbaijan had a war over the land of Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting stopped in 1994, and Armenia has had control over this land, but Azerbaijan still disputes about the land.

Geography[change | change source]

Armenia is landlocked in the South Caucasus. It is between the Black and Caspian Seas. The country is bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan, and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey.

It covers an area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi). The land is mostly mountains, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. There are hot summers and cold winters.

Mount Ararat used to be part of Armenia. It is the highest mountain in the region. It is now in Turkey, but clearly visible in Armenia. The Armenians see it as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.

Provinces[change | change source]

Armenia is divided into ten provinces and the capital city of Yerevan. As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities. 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. For a list of communities see List of settlements in Armenia.

Province Capital Area Population
Aragatsotn (Արագածոտն) Ashtarak (Աշտարակ) 2,753 km² 126,278
Ararat (Արարատ) Artashat (Արտաշատ) 2,096 km² 252,665
Armavir (Արմավիր) Armavir (Արմավիր) 1,242 km² 255,861
Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիք) Gavar (Գավառ) 5,348 km² 215,371
Kotayk (Կոտայք) Hrazdan (Հրազդան) 2,089 km² 241,337
Lori (Լոռի) Vanadzor (Վանաձոր) 3,789 km² 253,351
Shirak (Շիրակ) Gyumri (Գյումրի) 2,681 km² 257,242
Syunik (Սյունիք) Kapan (Կապան) 4,506 km² 134,061
Tavush (Տավուշ) Ijevan (Իջևան) 2,704 km² 121,963
Vayots Dzor (Վայոց Ձոր) Yeghegnadzor (Եղեգնաձոր) 2,308 km² 53,230
Yerevan (Երևան) 227 km² 1,091,235

Largest cities[change | change source]

Armenia has many cities. Here is a list of the ten biggest ones:

  1. Yerevan (1,121,900 people)
  2. Vanadzor
  3. Gyumri
  4. Vagharshapat
  5. Hrazdan
  6. Abovyan
  7. Armavir
  8. Kapan
  9. Gavar
  10. Artashat (20,562 people)

Filmography[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (with amendments)". Constitutional Court of the Republic of Armenia. 5 July 1995. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
  2. Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (Yerevan 2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE. Archived copy at WebCite (16 April 2010).
  3. Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information". As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority".
  4. "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church" http://www.parliament.am/parliament.php?id=constitution&lang=eng
  5. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns. United States: University of California, San Diego. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~mshugart/semi-presidentialism.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  6. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK) 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1057%2Fpalgrave.fp.8200087.pdf. Retrieved 13 October 2017. "Table 1 shows that dissolution power as a presidential initiative is rare in the contemporary president-parliamentary systems. In fact, only in Armenia may the president dissolve (once per year) without a trigger (e.g. assembly failure to invest a government).". 
  7. Markarov, Alexander (2016). "Semi-presidentialism in Armenia" (PDF). In Elgie, Robert; Moestrup, Sophia. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK (published 15 May 2016). pp. 61–90. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-38781-3_3. ISBN 978-1-137-38780-6. LCCN 2016939393. OCLC 6039792321. Retrieved 8 October 2017. Markarov discusses the formation and development of the semi-presidential system in Armenia since its foundation in 1991. The author identifies and compares the formal powers of the president, prime minister, and parliament under the 1995 Constitution as well as the amendments introduced through the Constitutional referendum in 2005. Markarov argues that the highly presidentialized semi-presidential system that was introduced in the early 1990s gradually evolved into a Constitutionally more balanced structure. However, in practice, the president has remained dominant and backed by a presidential majority; the president has thus been able to set the policy agenda and implement his preferred policy. 
  8. Lang, David Marshall. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970, p. 114. ISBN 0-04-956007-7.
  9. Redgate, Anna Elizabeth. The Armenians. Cornwall: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 16–19, 23, 25, 26 (map), 30–32, 38, 43 ISBN 0-631-22037-2.
  10. Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians (Reprint ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 0-631-22037-2. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians. 
  11. de Laet, Sigfried J.; Herrmann, Joachim, eds. (1996). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9789231028120. The ruler of the part known as Greater Armenia, Artaxias (Artashes), the founder of a new dynasty, managed to unite the country... 
  12. Encyclopedia Americana: Ankara to Azusa. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2005. p. 393. It was named for Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who founded the kingdom of Armenia about 190 B.C. 
  13. "The World Fact Book – Armenia". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  14. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  15. "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  16. "Armenia Population". countrymeters.info. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2016. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016. 
  18. "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  19. "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations. 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  20. Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009). Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 9789027238146. The orthography used in Armenia nowadays goes back to the Soviet orthography reform of 1922 and its revision of 1940. 

Other websites[change | change source]