Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hong Kong Cantonese)
Location of Hong Kong within China
|Status||Special administrative region|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Devolved executive-led parliamentary system within socialist republic|
|Paul Chan Mo-po|
|36 deputies (of 2,924)|
|Autonomy within the People's Republic of China|
|26 January 1841|
|29 August 1842|
|18 October 1860|
|9 June 1898|
|25 December 1941|
to 15 August 1945
1 July 1997
|2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi) (184th)|
• Water (%)
|59.8 (1,649 km2; 637 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
|6,544/km2 (16,948.9/sq mi) (4th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|$429.652 billion (44th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|$320.668 billion (33th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2016)|| 53.9|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.917|
very high · 12th
|Currency||Hong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Hong Kong Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||HK|
Hong Kong (// (listen); Chinese: 香港, Hong Kong Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (listen), literally "Fragrant Port"), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is one of two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of the People's Republic of China (the other is Macau). It is one of the richest and most highly developed places in China and even the world. Hong Kong grew quickly in the decades after World War II. It is now a famous world class financial center.
The population of Hong Kong is more than seven million. The economy has rapidly grown from a trading port to a very rich city.
Hong Kong is divided into 3 main parts:
Hong Kong has its own constitution that is different from that of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Climate[change | change source]
Hong Kong is in a tropical area, and has monsoon winds. It is cool and wet in winter (Jan-Mar), hot and rainy from spring through summer (Apr-Sep), and warm, sunny and dry in the autumn (Oct-Dec). The rainy season is from May until September. In summer and early autumn, there is a frequent threat of typhoons. As Hong Kong is located nearly at the centre of the Eurasian Plate, there are seldom tsunamis and earthquakes.
Population and language[change | change source]
The population of Hong Kong reached 7 million in 2009. Most of the people in Hong Kong are Chinese. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It has an overall density of 6,300 people per square kilometre.
Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates—1.11 per woman of child-bearing age as of 2012. This is far below the rate needed to replace each person, 2.1.
People from Hong Kong mainly speak Cantonese. Students are required to learn English at school. Ever since Hong Kong became a part of China, the number of people who speak Mandarin has increased because Mandarin is the official language of the PRC.
Public holidays[change | change source]
17 days of the year are public holidays in Hong Kong:
- 1 January - the beginning of the year
- the Chinese New Year - 15 days of celebrations, of which 3 are public holidays
- Qingming Festival, also known as "Tomb Sweeping Day"
- Easter (3 public holidays)
- 1 May - Labour Day
- The Buddha's birthday
- Dragon Boat Festival
- 1 July (HKSAR Day)
- the day after Mid-Autumn Festival
- 1 Oct - Chinese National Day
- Chongyang Festival - a day when people honor their ancestors, similar to "Tomb Sweeping Day"
- Christmas (25 and 26 December are public holidays)
Currency[change | change source]
There are coins from 10 cents to 10 Hong Kong dollars; and bank-notes (paper money bills) from $10 to $1000. One American dollar is equal to about $7.75 in Hong Kong dollars, at the official bank exchange rate.
Public transport[change | change source]
- Mass Transit Railway (MTR) which was established in 1979, owns seven lines (10 lines after KCR merger),
- Kwun Tong Line (running between Whampoa/Ho Man Tin and Tiu Keng Leng)
- Tsuen Wan Line (running between Tsuen Wan and Central)
- Island Line (running between Kennedy Town and Chai Wan)
- South Island Line (running between Admiralty and South Horizons)
- Tseung Kwan O Line (running between Po Lam/LOHAS Park and North Point)
- Tung Chung Line (running between Tung Chung/Tsing Yi and Hong Kong)
- Airport Express (running between AsiaWorld-Expo and Hong Kong)
- Disneyland Resort Line (running between Sunny Bay and Disneyland Resort)
- East Rail Line (running between Hung Hom and Lo Wu/Lok Ma Chau)
- West Rail Line (running between Hung Hom and Tuen Mun/Kam Sheung Road)
- Ma On Shan Line (running between Wu Kai Sha and Tai Wai)
- Bus: there are four major bus companies in Hong Kong, such as KMB which mainly services Kowloon, the rest are New Lantau Bus, who mainly services Lantau Island, Citybus, which mainly serves airport routes and New World First Bus, which mainly services Hong Kong Island.
- Public Light Bus: in 1960s, it was an illegal transportation, but later on, the government noticed that if there were only buses in Hong Kong, then some villages in N.T. will not have a public transport. Therefore, the Legislative Council legislated (made a law) for it to be legal and under the government control.
- Tram (running between Kennedy Town, Happy Valley, and Shau Kei Wan)
- Peak Tram (running between Garden Road and Victoria Peak)
- Taxi (Red, Green, and Blue)
- Ferry (Lots of different companies, including the Star Ferry, First Ferry and Fortune Ferry companies)
Education[change | change source]
Universities[change | change source]
- 1911 – University of Hong Kong
- 1963 – Chinese University of Hong Kong
- 1991 – Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
In 1994, four places became universities:
- Hong Kong Polytechnic University
- City University of Hong Kong
- Hong Kong Baptist University
- Education University of Hong Kong
Three more places have since become universities:
Housing in Hong Kong[change | change source]
Hong Kong has the most unaffordable housing market in the world. This according to a study which compared ninety metropolitan areas in different countries. An article in the National Post on July 6, 2019, said that the cause of the protests is not the proposed extradition law alone, but also the high cost of housing.
Timeline of Hong Kong[change | change source]
Here is a brief history of Hong Kong:
Around 4000 BC
- Sea levels rose above 100 meters
Around 3500 BC
- Ceramic forms decorated with a wide range of patterns
Around 2000 BC
- Bronze weapons, knives, arrowheads & tools.
- Metal worked locally
Around 500 BC
- Ancient Chinese writing developed
- People from Mainland China came to Hong Kong
- Coins from the Chinese Han period were used in Hong Kong
- A Portuguese named Jorge Álvares was the first European to reach Hong Kong
- China banned the drug trade in Hong Kong
- Opium became a huge business
- Lin Zexu was appointed Special Commissioner
- The First Opium war began
- Hong Kong was given to the British and became a dependent territory of United Kingdom
- Lord Palmerston wrote that Hong Kong was a barren island with only a few houses on it
January 26, 1841
- The British flag was raised at Possession Point, on Hong Kong Island
- Sir Henry Pottinger became Hong Kong's first governor
- The Treaty of Nanjing was signed, ending the First Opium War
- China was defeated in the Second Opium War. Boundary Street and Stonecutter's Island were leased to Britain
- The Peak Tram started operating on Hong Kong Island
- Lantau Island and the New Territories were leased to the British for 99 years
- Hong Kong became a refuge for exiles from China
- Western dress began to come in fashion for the locals
- Father Daniel Finn began excavations on Lamma Island
- Refugees fleeing the Chinese Communist Party came to Hong Kong
December 8, 1941
- The Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong
December 25, 1941
- The British authorities surrendered Hong Kong to the Japanese Army
- Britain reclaimed its territory after Japan's surrender
- Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong
- Hong Kong became a free port
- The Shek Kip Mei Estate was built, establishing the program of public housing
- A Han period tomb was discovered near Lei Cheng Uk
- The Hong Kong dollar was tied to the US dollar
- China and Britain signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration
- The Hong Kong Basic Law was confirmed
- Asia's financial crisis
- Archaeologists discovered 20 graves on the island of Ma Wa
- Tung Chee Wa elected as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong. Voting was conducted by 400 committees of an electoral college whose members are appointed by the Chinese Government.
July 1, 1997
- Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of China for 50 years
- Hong Kong International Airport replaced Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon
- Tung Chee Wa was elected as Chief Executive for a second term.
- Citizens wanted a more democratic and republican system
- The SARS epidemic began
March 10, 2005
- Tung Chee Wa retired as chief executive because of health problems.
June 16, 2005
- Donald Tsang Yam-kuen was elected unopposed as Chief Executive.
- Leung Chun Ying was elected as Chief Executive.
- People occupied the Central region to demand universal suffrage for the next chief executive election, to take place in in 2017.
- The government voted against the universal suffrage demanded by the people.
- There were more protests in Mong Kok and police had to spray pepper spray on the people to get them to leave.
- Protestors in Hong Kong demonstrated against a new extradition law proposed by the government of mainland China. It was the largest protest in Hong Kong's history According to Wikinews this law would allow Mainland China to extradite people living or visiting Hong Kong who may be fugitives. The reputation of China had been damaged by allegations of torture, forced confessions and arbitrary detentions before.
Media[change | change source]
Hong Kong has a few media companies, notably Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB).
Places in Hong Kong[change | change source]
- Hong Kong Disneyland
- Victoria Peak
- Ocean Park
- Man Mo Temple
- Repulse Bay
- Lo House Museum
- Hong Kong Park
- Yuen Po Street Bird Garden
- Hong Kong Museum of History
- Hong Kong Space Museum
- Hong Kong Museum of Science & Technology
- Wong Tai Sin Temple
- Lantau Link Visitors' Viewing Centre
- Fung Ying Sin Koon
- Sham Tung Uk
- Po Lin Monastery and the Big Buddha on Lantau Island (currently the largest bronze Buddha in world)
- Cheung Chau (Long Island)
Notes[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Basic Law Full Text - Annex III". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "Main Tables - Population by Ethnicity and Year". 2016 Population By-Census. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- Cheung, Tony (28 February 2017). "Who goes there? Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- CIA The World Fact Book
- "Maps and Services" Survey and Mapping Office
- "Hong Kong Geographic Data" (PDF). Retrieved 1 Sep 2017.
- "Population – Overview – Census and Statistics Department".
- "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- "Thematic Report : Household Income Distribution in Hong Kong 2016" (PDF). Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Hong Kong – the Facts". GovHK. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "OFFICIAL LANGUAGES DIVISION". Civil Service Bureau. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "Disclaimer and Copyright Notice". Legislative Council. 27 November 2017.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hong Kong.|
- "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.