||The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (November 2011)|
|Republic of China
|Anthem: "National Anthem of the Republic of China"
"National Flag Anthem"
Depicting the Free area of the Republic of China
|Largest city||New Taipei City|
|Recognised regional languages||Taiwanese
|Official scripts||Traditional Chinese|
|Ethnic groups||98% Han
|Demonym||Taiwanese or Chinese or both|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|-||President||Ma Ying-jeou (KMT)|
|-||Vice President||Wu Den-yih (KMT)|
|-||Premier||Mao Chi-kuo (KMT)|
|-||President of the Legislative Yuan||Wang Jin-pyng (KMT)|
|-||President of the Judicial Yuan||Rai Hau-min|
|-||President of the Control Yuan||Wang Chien-shien (NP)|
|-||President of the Examination Yuan||Kuan Chung (KMT)|
|Establishment Xinhai Revolution|
|-||Wuchang Uprising||10 October 1911|
|-||Republic established||1 January 1912|
|-||Constitution||25 December 1947|
|-||Total||36,193 km2 (136th)
13,974 sq mi
|-||2012 estimate||23,261,747 (50th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$876.035 billion (19th)|
|-||Per capita||$37,719 (19th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$466.832 billion (26th)|
|-||Per capita||$20,100 (39th)|
|HDI (2010)|| 0.868[c]
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC+8)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+8)|
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.tw, .台灣, .台湾|
Taiwan (also known as Formosa) officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a state in East Asia. It is the nationalist government of China since its settlement in 1949. It is called the Republic of China (ROC) (also called Taiwan) which is a special region comprising the island of Taiwan and nearby islands (Pescadores islands and parts of Fujian). The Chinese Nationalist government (Kuomintang also called KMT) moved to Taiwan after the Communist army took over the capital of Beijing. Currently, the Chinese Nationalist government governs Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Taiwan is southeast of the China mainland, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines.
Formosa is the Portuguese name of Taiwan, which means "beautiful" in Portuguese.
Taiwan has three large Han groups. They speak different dialects of Chinese and their ancestors came from different places: the Southern Fujianese (from China's Fujian Province), the Hakka (from China), and Mainlanders (from Mainland China after 1948).
History[change | change source]
- 1517: A Portuguese ship sees the island and names it "Ilha Formosa", or "Beautiful Island" in Portuguese.
- 17th century: From 1624 until 1661 Dutch colonized the southern part of Formosa and established a colonial administration in Fort Zeelandia, and the Spanish colonized the north and established a colonial administration in Fuerte Santo Domingo or Fort Santo Domingo. The Dutch eventually defeated the Spaniards and took full control of Formosa. A Chinese general named Koxinga, defeated the Dutch at the Siege of Fort Zeelandia.
- 1860: Taiwan becomes a treaty port following the Treaty of Tientsin, opening the island to contact with the world.
- 1874: Japan invaded southern Taiwan, seemingly to "punish" the aborigines there for the murder of ship-wrecked Okinawan fishermen in 1871, but actually to establish a colony. Japanese forced withdraw later in the year after the Meiji and Qing empires nearly went to war.
- 1884-1885: Taiwan is blockaded by French navy during the Sino-Franco War.
- 1895: Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War and gave Taiwan to Japan permanently.
- 1945: Japan lost in World War II to USA and gave up Taiwan permanently.
- 1946: USA accepts millions refugees and soldiers from China to Taiwan and USA President installs The Republic of China to govern Taiwan and to fight China and communism.
- 1947: Taiwanese widely protest governmental corruption under the Nationalists. Chiang Kai-shek sends in the army to restore order, killing tens of thousands. Some Taiwanese began the Taiwan independence movement.
- Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) party and the Communist Party of China (CCP).
- The Nationalists (KMT) lose the war, and escape to the island of Taiwan. They set up Taipei as the temporary capital of China (ROC).
- The Communist Party of China (CCP) establishes Beijing as the capital of The People's Republic of China (PRC).
- 1951: Japan signs the Treaty of San Francisco (1951) with USA.
- 1979: The KMT government jails many democracy activists who opposed it (Kaohsiung Incident).
- 1986: The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is formed; it is the first party to form in the ROC other than the KMT. It remains illegal for several years, but the KMT government does not try to ban it.
- 1987: The KMT government lifts the martial law after almost 40 years.
- 2000: Chen Shui-bian (DPP) becomes president.
- 2004: Chen Shui-bian is re-elected after a controversial assassination attempt, in which many KMT-supporters believed, was staged by Chen. However, after unwillingness to cooperate about his medical records the investigation was inconclusive.
- 2008: Former president Chen Sui-bian and his wife are arrested for corruption and money laundering.
- 2008: Ma Ying-jeou was elected as the president of the Republic of China and thus creating a change of political parties for the second time.
- 2009: Kaohsiung hosts the 2009 World Games.
Status of Taiwan[change | change source]
There are two Chinese governments in the world: The People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). Today, in reality, the PRC government controls mainland China, and the ROC government governs Taiwan. The ROC government governed most of China mainland from 1911 to 1949, before losing control of China mainland to the PRC.
Today, people who live in Taiwan have different ideas. Although many Taiwanese think there is no freedom in China, there are still some Taiwanese who want to be united again with China. The majority of the people in Taiwan want to keep everything like it is now.
Today most countries of the world recognize the People's Republic of China as China. Even though Taiwan is not recognized by the UN as a sovereign nation, most countries still have close economic and cultural relations with Taiwan. So, both sides are not making any big changes from the political status quo. This policy was expressed in a 1992 Consensus among some leaders of both sides.
In March 2004, China's government passed a law called the Anti-Secession Law. The law requires the Chinese military to invade Taiwan immediately if they declare independence. The law shows China's concern over a growing move towards independence by the government of Taiwan.
Geography[change | change source]
The island of Taiwan is about 180 kilometers off the southeastern coast of China. It is across the Taiwan Strait. It has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi). The East China Sea is to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.
Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain). It is 3,952 meters high (12,966 ft). There are five other peaks over 3,500 meters.
The Penghu Islands are 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island. They have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands controlled by the Republic of China are the Kinmen, Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian. They have a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi). The Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea have a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi). They have no permanent inhabitants.
Cities[change | change source]
The largest cities in Taiwan are:
References[change | change source]
- "Yearbook 2004". Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/2004/P045.htm. "Taipei is the capital of the ROC"
- "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 1975-04-05. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/580902/Taiwan. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- CIA World Factbook information about Taiwan, United States Central Intelligence Agency.
- "The ROC's Humanitarian Relief Program for Afghan Refugees". Gio.gov.tw. 2001-12-11. Archived from the original on 15 December 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20041215030432/http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/relief/help_41.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Taiwanese health official invited to observe bird-flu conference". Gio.gov.tw. 2005-11-11. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/4-oa/20051111/2005111101.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Demonyms – Names of Nationalities". Geography.about.com. http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa030900a.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- Jacobs, Andrew (14 January 2012). "President of Taiwan Is Re-elected, a Result That Is Likely to Please China". The New York Times: p. A6. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/15/world/asia/taiwan-presidential-election.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "About us » Vice President Wu Den-yih » Biography". english.president.gov.tw. Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan). http://english.president.gov.tw/Default.aspx?tabid=1407. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Executive Yuan ─ Chen Chun (aka Sean Chen)". www.ey.gov.tw. Executive Yuan. 16 April 2012. http://www.ey.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=86851&ctNode=1328&mp=11. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "President > Brief Introduction". www.ly.gov.tw. Legislative Yuan. 2010. http://www.ly.gov.tw/en/02_chief/chiefIntro.action?id=1. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Hau-Min Rai". Justices of the Constitutional Court. Judicial Yuan. http://www.judicial.gov.tw/constitutionalcourt/en/p01_03_01.asp?curno=24. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "President Wang, Chien-shien". www.cy.gov.tw. Control Yuan. 1 June 2011. http://www.cy.gov.tw/mp21.htm. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "The Examination Yuan of ROC - President". www.exam.gov.tw. Examination Yuan. 27 March 2012. http://www.exam.gov.tw/lp.asp?CtNode=608&CtUnit=268&BaseDSD=58&mp=5&nowpage=1&pagesize=20. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/month/m1-01.xls. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "Republic of China (Taiwan)". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2011&ey=2017&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=528&s=NGDP%2CNGDPD%2CNGDPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=&pr.x=55&pr.y=14. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Table 4. Percentage Share of Disposable Income by Quintile Group of Households and Income Inequality Indices". Report on The Survey of Family Income and Expenditure. Taipei, Taiwan: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. 2010. http://win.dgbas.gov.tw/fies/doc/result/99/a11/Year04.xls.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010. http://brussels38.icann.org/meetings/brussels2010/transcript-board-25jun10-en.txt.
- Sigrid Winkler (June 2012). "Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not To Be". The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/06/20-taiwan-un-winkler. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- John J. Tkacik, Jr.. "China's New "Anti-Secession Law" Escalates Tensions in the TaiwanStrait". The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2004/12/chinas-new-anti-secession-law-escalates-tensions-in-the-taiwan-strait. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- Zou Keyuan, 'Governing the Taiwan Issue in Accordance with Law: An Essay on China's Anti-Secession Law', Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2005), p. 455
- "Chapter 1: Geography". The Republic of China Yearbook. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. pp. 13–25. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/docs/ch01.pdf.
Related pages[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Taiwan|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: Taiwan|