Republic of China (1912–1949)

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Republic of China

中華民國
Zhonghua Minguo
1912–1949
Anthem: 
(1937–1949)

Flag anthem
《中華民國國旗歌》
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
(1937–1949)
Location and maximum extent of the territory claimed by the Republic of China (1945).
Location and maximum extent of the territory claimed by the Republic of China (1945).
CapitalBeijing (1912–1928)
Nanjing (1927–1949)
Chongqing[a] (1937–1946)
Largest cityShanghai
Official languagesStandard Chinese
Recognised national languagesTibetan
Chagatai/Uighur
Manchu
Mongolian
and other languages
Official script
Religion
see Religion in China
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under Beiyang rule (1912–1928)
One-party state under a military dictatorship (1928–1946)
Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic (1946–1949)
President 
• 1912
Sun Yat-sen (first, provisional)
• 1949–1950
Li Zongren (last in Chinese mainland, acting)
Premier 
• 1912
Tang Shaoyi (first)
• 1949
He Yingqin (last in Chinese mainland)
LegislatureParliament
National Assembly
Legislative Yuan
History 
10 October 1911[b]–12 February 1912[c]
1 January 1912
• Beiyang government in Peking
1912–1928
1926–1928
• Nationalist government in Nanking
1927–1949
1927–1936,
1946–1950[d]
7 July 1937[e]–2 September 1945[f]
• People's Republic of China proclaimed
1 October 1949
7 December 1949
Area
191211,077,380 km2 (4,277,000 sq mi)
19469,676,204 km2 (3,736,003 sq mi)
Population
• 1912
432,375,000
• 1920
472,000,000
• 1930
489,000,000
• 1946
535,418,000
• 1949
541,670,000
Currency
Time zoneUTC+5:30 to +8:30 (Kunlun to Changpai Standard Times)
Driving sideright
ISO 3166 codeTW
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Qing dynasty
People's Republic of China
Mongolian People's Republic
Today part of

The Republic of China (ROC) was a country that existed between 1912 and 1949. It is now the People's Republic of China. It was created in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty. The Republic's first president was Sun Yat-sen. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT) won the parliamentary election in December 1912.

But Sun soon gave the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. The Beiyang Army also controlled the Beiyang government (which controlled Mongolia).

Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai called himself the Emperor of China. But people did not like it (National protection war).

After Yuan died death in 1916, the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Various groups in the Beiyang Army claimed independence and fought with each other during the Warlord Era.

In 1921, the KMT created a rival government in Canton, supported by the Communist Party of China (CPC).

North China was overtaxed and had too many fighting warlords. So its economy died between 1927 and 1928.

General Jiang Jieshi became the KMT leader after Sun's death. Jiang started the Northern Expedition in 1926 and overthrew the Beiyang government in 1928. In April 1927, Jiang created a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. This forced the CPC into armed rebellion, starting the Chinese Civil War.

China experienced industrialization and modernization but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, warlords, and the Empire of Japan.

Eventually the Chinese unified to fight against their common enemy: the Japanese. In 1937 the Imperial Japanese Army invaded China in 1937. The Second Sino-Japanese War began.

In 1945 Japan surrendered at the end of World War II.

In 1946, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC restarted.

In 1949, the CPC defeated the KMT and started the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Jiang Jieshi and the KMT fled to Taiwan.

Notes[change | change source]