|Republic of India
"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते (Devanāgarī)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"
| National song:[a]
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"
Area controlled by India is in dark red.
Claimed and controlled regions are in light red.
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
|National languages||None defined by the Constitution|
|-||Prime Minister||Narendra Modi (NDA)|
|-||Speaker of the House||Sumitra Mahajan (NDA)|
|-||Chief Justice||H L Dattu|
|Legislature||Parliament of India|
|-||Upper house||Rajya Sabha|
|-||Lower house||Lok Sabha|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|-||Declared||15 August 1947|
|-||Republic||26 January 1950|
|-||Total||3,287,263 km2[upper-alpha 1] (7th)
1,269,219 sq mi
|-||2011 census||1,210,193,422 (2nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$4.469 trillion (3rd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$1.996 trillion (9th)|
medium · 79th
medium · 79th
|Currency||Indian rupee () (INR)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+05:30)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|Drives on the||left|
The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य) is a country in Asia. It is at the center of South Asia. India has more than 1.2 billion (1,210,000,000) people, which is the second largest population in the world. It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and the largest country in South Asia.
India is the largest democracy in the world by population. The capital of India is New Delhi. India is a peninsula, bound by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long. India has the third largest army in the world and nuclear weapons.
India gets its name from the Greek word, Indus. It means "the people who live near the Indus River."
According to Transparency International, India is the 83rd most corrupt nation out of 174 recognized countries. The Indian government has faced thousands of protests since April 2011, where people have demanded many major politicians to resign, and give up all the money which they have earned through corruption.
India has the fourth largest number of spoken languages per country in the world, only behind Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Nigeria. People of many different religions live there, including the five most popular world religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. The latter three religions came from the Indian subcontinent.
National Symbols of India[change | change source]
Panthera tigris tigris (national animal)
Pavo muticus (national bird)
Nelumbo nucifera (national flower)
Ficus benghalensis (national tree)
The National emblem of India shows four lions standing back-to-back. The lions symbolise power, pride, confidence, and courage (bravery). Only the government can use this emblem, according to the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.
History[change | change source]
Two of the main Classical languages of the world— Sanskrit and Tamil, were born in India. Both of these languages are more than 3000 years old. The country founded a religion called Hinduism, which most Indians still follow. Later, a king called Ashoka built an empire called the Maurya dynasty in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country. From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC — AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas. South India at that time was famous for its very good science, art, and writing.
Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.
In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest against British control. One of the people who were leading the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence". On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. Every year, on this day, Indians celebrate Republic Day. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.
After 1947, India has had a socialist planned economy. It is one founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and city which was not a part of India until 1961. The Portuguese refused to give it to the country, and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998, and it is one of the few countries that has nuclear bombs. Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.
Government[change | change source]
India's government is divided into three parts: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).
The legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two groups: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members, and the Lok Sabha has 552 members.
The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, help the Prime Minister. Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India on May 16, 2014. He is the 19th Prime Minister of India.
The judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India. In India, there are also 21 High Courts.
Geography and climate[change | change source]
India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country.
India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. One of the seven wonders of the world is located in Agra the Taj Mahal. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.
India has different climates. In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter. The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions. The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land dries out because there is less rain) are possible.
Defence[change | change source]
The Indian Armed Forces is the military of India. It is made up of an Army, Navy Coast Guard and Air Force. There are other parts like Paramilitary and Strategic Nuclear Command.
The President of India is its Commander-in-Chief. However, it is managed by the Ministry of Defence. In 2010, the Indian Armed Forces had 1.32 million active personnel. This makes it one of the largest militaries in the world.
Currently, the Indian Army is becoming more modern by buying and making new weapons. It is also building defences against missiles of other countries. In 2011, India imported more weapons than any other nation in the world.
From its independence in 1947, India fought four wars with Pakistan and one war with China.
India's Gurkha soldiers are famous around the world for their bravery.
Indian states[change | change source]
For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Dehli, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-nine states, and seven union territories.
|Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (summer)
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa|
|Daman and Diu||Daman|
Trouble with the borders[change | change source]
There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are. Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Occupied Kashmir. The Indian government calls it Jammu and Kashmir and believes it is an Indian state. Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.
In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord. Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.
Economy[change | change source]
The economy of the country is among world's fastest growing. The economy of India is the 3rd largest in the world with a GDP of $4798 billion. In terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth $4.798 trillion U.S.). The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on service sector=43%, Industries=41%, I.T=7%, farming=7%, Outsourcing=2%.
India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.
However, despite economic growth, India suffers from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005. In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than USD $2 a day, which was lowered to 68% by 2009.
People[change | change source]
There are 1.12 billion people living in India. India is the second largest country by the number of people living in it, with China being the first. Experts think that by the year 2030, India will be the first. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas, or land set aside for farming. The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad. India has 23 official languages. Altogether, 1,625 languages are spoken in India.
Languages[change | change source]
There are many different languages and cultures in India. The only geographical place with more different languages and cultures is the African continent. There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.
Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers. It is the official language of the union. Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in the administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'. The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognised to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.
India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages. Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi); Tamil and Sanskrit kannada are officially the "classical languages of India."
|Language||Long form||English Pronunciation||Short form|
|Assamese||ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য||Bhārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভাৰত Bharot|
|Bengali||ভারত গণরাজ্য||Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভারত Bharot|
|English||Republic of India||India|
|Gujarati||ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક||Bhartiya Prajasattak||ભારત|
|Rajasthani||भारत गणराज्य||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||भारत Bhārat|
|Hindi||भारत गणराज्य||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||भारत Bhārat|
|Kannada||ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||ಭಾರತ Bhārata|
|Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei)||ভারত গণরাজ্য||ভারত|
|Marathi||भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक||Bhartiya Prajasattak||भारत Bhārat|
|Nepali||भारत गणराज्य||Bʰārat Gaṇarāǳya||भारत Bʰārat|
|Punjabi||ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ||Bhārat Gantantar||ਭਾਰਤ Bhārat|
|Sanskrit||भारत गणराज्यम्||Bhārata Gaṇarājyam||भारत Bhārata|
|Tamil||இந்தியக் குடியரசு||Indiyak-Kudiyarasu||இந்தியா India/Bharadham|
|Telugu||భారత గణరాజ్యము||Bʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamu||భారత్ Bhārath|
|Urdu||جمہوریہ بھارت||Jumhūrīyat-e Bhārat||بھارت Bhārat|
Culture[change | change source]
|Religion in India|
Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE, although these were transmitted for centuries before this period. Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible music.
Several modern religions are linked to India, namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.
It's the first time ever since independence that Hindu population percentage fell below 80%.
Technology[change | change source]
India sent a spacecraft to Mars for the first time in 2014. That made it the fourth country and only Asian country to do so. India is the only country to be successful in its very first attempt to orbit Mars. It was called the Mars Orbiter Mission. It took less money to make than the Hollywood movie, Gravity.
Pop culture[change | change source]
India has the largest movie industry in the world.[source?] Based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the industry is also known as Bollywood (an obvious play on Hollywood). It makes 1,000 movies a year, about twice as many as Hollywood.
Sports[change | change source]
India's official national sport is field hockey which is controlled by the Indian Hockey Federation. They have also won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The India cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.
Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala. The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.
Notes[change | change source]
- "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
- "The country’s exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).
References[change | change source]
- National Informatics Centre 2005.
- Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
- The Times of India 2007.
- Ministry of Home Affairs 2011.
- International Monetary Fund.
- Central Intelligence Agency.
- United Nations 2011.
- Census of India. Provisional Population Totals: India: Census 2011
- "Country profile: India". British Broadcasting Corporation. 19 April 2012. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm. Retrieved 2005-55-21.
- Kumar, V. Sanil; K. C. Pathak, P. Pednekar, N. S. N. Raju (2006). "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF). Current Science 91 (4): 530–536. http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/350/1/Curr_Sci_91_530.pdf.
- "The world's ten largest armies". http://www.espritdecorps.ca/new_page_240.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "Largest Army in the World". http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-top-ten/world-top-ten-countries-with-largest-armies-map.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "India Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/india/nuke/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "China, India to grow fastest in world: IMF". The BRICS Post. BRICS Media Network Ltd.. 24 January 2013. http://thebricspost.com/china-india-to-grow-fastest-in-world-imf/. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Singh, Gyanant (16 January 2013). "Rising economic wealth and literacy behind increase of court cases, claims report". India Today. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-economic-wealth-literacy-rising-court-cases-report-india-today/1/242401.html. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Transparency International. 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index
- Bloomberg View. Indians Divide Over Policing a Watchdog: World View
- "Which countries have the most languages?". Ethnologue. https://www.ethnologue.com/enterprise-faq/which-countries-have-most-languages.
- "Taj Mahal". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list. Retrieved 28 September 2007. "The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value."
- Jona Lendering. "Maurya dynasty". http://www.livius.org/man-md/mauryas/mauryas.html. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- "South India". Suni System Ltd.. 2007. http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/history%20south.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- "From Trade to Colonization - Historic Dynamics of the East India Companies". 3 June 2007. http://india_resource.tripod.com/eastindia.html. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
- "India Profile". NTI. 2003. http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/India/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
- Montek S. Ahluwalia (2002). "Economic Reforms in India since 1991: Has Gradualism Worked?" (MS Word). Journal of Economic Perspectives. http://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/speech/spemsa/msa008.doc. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
- "Our Parliament A brief description of the Indian Parliament". www.parliamentofindia.gov.in. http://www.india.gov.in/outerwin.htm?id=http://parliamentofindia.gov.in/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
- Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
- Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 333. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
- IISS 2010, pp. 358
- SFGate. [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/06/18/MNRR11AJK9.DTL&type=science India's army seeks military space program
- http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/html/export_values.php[dead link]
- "Country Profile: India" (PDF). Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. December 2004. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/India.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
- "China revives claims on Indian territory". Islamic Republic News Agency. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/china/2005/china-050405-irna01.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
- India-Taiwan Relations: In Delicate Minuet
- "CIA Factbook: India". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10.
- "Poverty estimates for 2004-05". Planning Commission,Government of India. http://www.planningcommission.gov.in/news/prmar07.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
- "Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Population living below $2 a day (%)". United Nations Development Programme. http://hdrstats.undp.org/indicators/24.html. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
- Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. FIELD LISTING: POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE
- "Most populated countries". Compare Infobase Limited. http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-top-ten/world-top-ten-most-populated-countries-map.html. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
- Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 332. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
- "Census of India 2001". Census of India. http://www.censusindia.net/results/index.html. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "Languages of India". India image. http://indiaimage.nic.in/languages.htm. Retrieved August 14, 2005.
- "Languages by number of speakers according to 1991 census". Central Institute of Indian Languages. http://www.ciil.org/Main/Languages/map4.htm. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- Mallikarjun, B. (Nov., 2004), Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi–The Official Language of India, Language in India, Volume 4, Number 11. ISSN 1930-2940.
- "Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27 April, 1960". http://www.rajbhasha.gov.in/preseng.htm. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
- Prabodh Bechardas Pandit, "Language in a Plural Society", Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Committee, 1977.
- Robert McHenry, "The New Encyclopaedia Britannica", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993.
- "Eighth Schedule". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. http://lawmin.nic.in/coi/EIGHTH-SCHEDULE.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- "The Union: Official Language". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/official_language.php. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
- Religious Composition
- Goldman 2007, p. 23.
- Rinehart 2004, p. 28.
- "Ancient Indians made 'rock music'". BBC News. 19 March 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3520384.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
- Adams, C. J., Classification of religions: Geographical, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Accessed: 5 September 2007
- "Census of India 2001, Data on Religion". Census of India. http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "Bollywood at 100: How Big is India's Mammoth Film Industry". IBTimes. http://www.ibtimes.com/bollywood-100-how-big-indias-mammoth-film-industry-1236299.
- Majumdar & Bandyopadhyay 2006, pp. 1–5
- "Anand crowned World champion". Rediff. 2008-10-29. http://www.rediff.com/sports/2008/oct/29anand.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
Other websites[change | change source]
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Images and media from Wikiversity
Images and media from Wikispecies
Database entry from Wikidata
Documentation from MediaWiki
- CIA World Factbook information about India
- Encyclopædia Britannica entry on India
- BBC country profile of India
- Library of Congress Country Studies entry on India