Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
Negara Brunei Darussalam
نڬارا بروني دارالسلام
Motto: "الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى" "Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah"
"Always in service with God's guidance" (translation)
Anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan
God Bless the Sultan
Location of Brunei (red)
and largest city
|Bandar Seri Begawan|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Official scripts||Malay alphabet,|
|1 January 1984|
|5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) (172nd)|
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
• 2001 census
|67.3/km2 (174.3/sq mi) (134th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|$21.237 billion (122nd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|$16.313 billion (166th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2011)|| 0.838|
very high · 33rd
|Currency||Brunei dollar (BND)|
|Driving side||right (by 2021)|
Brunei (officially called the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace) is a country in Southeast Asia. It is north of Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The country is rather landlocked by Malaysia. To the north is the South China Sea and the Philippines to the northeast. The capital of Brunei is Bandar Seri Begawan. The country is small and has a small population. The leader of the country is the Sultan of Brunei. Due to the sale of his oil, he is one of the richest people in the world. The official religion in Brunei is Islam. There are also minorities of people who follow Buddhism or Animism. The native language of Brunei is Malay and English is the second language. Brunei is one of the smallest Muslim countries in the world.
History[change | change source]
From the 14th to the 16th centuries Brunei Darussalam was the seat of a powerful sultanate extending over Sabah, Sarawak and the southern Philippines. Thus, the current Sultan represents one of the oldest continuously ruling dynasties in the world. By the 19th century, the Brunei Darussalam Empire had been whittled away by wars, piracy and the colonial expansion of European powers.
In 1847, the sultan ended a treaty with Great Britain and in 1888 Brunei Darussalam officially became a British protectorate. In 1906, the Residential System was established in Brunei Darussalam. A British Resident was nominated as a representative of the British government to advise the sultan in all matters except Malay customs, traditions and Islamic religion.
The 1959 Agreement established a written constitution which gave Brunei Darussalam internal self-government. In 1971, the agreement was amended and revised to assert full internal independence except defence and external affairs.
In June 5, 1966 His Highness Sultan Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien abdicated in favour of his son Pengiran Muda Mahkota Hassanal Bolkiah. On January 1, 1984 Brunei Darussalam resumed full independence and the Sultan took office as Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Home Affairs Minister, presiding over a cabinet of six. In October 1986, the cabinet was expanded to 11 members, with His Majesty relinquishing the portfolios of Finance and Home Affairs and taking over the Defence portfolio which his late father had held since 1984. In 1988 another reshuffle brought about the elevation of the deputy minister to a full minister and the creation of the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources designed to boost the country's development.
In spite of the sizable non-Muslim population (about 1/3 of the population) and criticism by the international community, the Sultan still announced Brunei's adoption of Sharia law in 2013 to fully enforce on the Muslim majority and partially enforce on non-Muslims. It was expected to take full effect in 2016 after 3 phases, and had begun partial enforcement in its first phase in 2014. It is the first country in East and Southeast Asia to practice Sharia law.
Divisions[change | change source]
|No.||District||Capital||Population (2011 census)||Area (km2)|
|2.||Brunei-Muara||Bandar Seri Begawan||279,924||571|
Over 90% of Brunei's total population lives in 15 of the 38 mukims.
Cities[change | change source]
Officially, there are no places in Brunei that have "city" status. Some of the important places are:
- Bandar Seri Begawan (Pop. ~181,500, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
- Kuala Belait (Pop. ~38,000, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
- Seria (Pop. ~35,400, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
- Jerudong (Pop. ~30,000, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
- Tutong (Pop. ~27,500, Tutong Municipal Council)
- Bangar - administrative centre of the Temburong district
- Muara Town - has the only deep sea port of Brunei
Revenue[change | change source]
Given that Brunei is an oil-rich country, Brunei gets most of its income from selling natural resources. .[needs to be explained]
Currency[change | change source]
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Brunei (Languages)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Give recognition to our languages". Retrieved 19 November 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Call to add ethnic languages as optional subject in schools". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Writing contest promotes usage, history of Jawi script - The Brunei Times". Archived from the original on 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "Sultan of Brunei holds dinner for His Highness Amir". Kuwait News. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Brunei". CIA World Factbook. 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011. Cite journal requires
- "Brunei". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Brunei Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah Handbook. IBP USA. 2011. p. 10.
- Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- "CONSTITUTION OF BRUNEI DARUSSALAM" (PDF). Attorney General's Chambers Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 15 October 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Home - Jabatan Perdana Menteri". www.jpm.gov.bn.
- "Brunei adopts sharia law amid international outcry". CNN.
- District Statistics (2010). Brunei Darussalam Statistical Yearbook (PDF). Brunei Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07.
- "Background Note: Brunei". US Department of State. Retrieved 23 December 2011.