Bailiwick of Jersey
|Anthem: "God Save the King"|
|Regional anthem: "Island Home"|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Separation from the Duchy of Normandy||1204|
and largest city
49°11.4′N 2°6.6′W / 49.1900°N 2.1100°W
|Common languages||Portuguese and Polish|
|Ethnic groups |
3.8% Other European
|Religion||Church of England|
|Government||Parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy|
|Tim Le Cocq|
|John Le Fondré Jr|
|118.2 km2 (45.6 sq mi) (unranked)|
• Water (%)
|Highest elevation||469 ft (143 m)|
• 2019 estimate
|819/km2 (2,121.2/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|$6.0 billion (£4.57 billion) (not ranked)|
• Per capita
|$60,000 (£45,783) (not ranked)|
|HDI (2008)|| 0.985|
very high · not ranked
Jersey pound (£) (GBP)
|Time zone||UTC±00:00 (GMT)|
• Summer (DST)
|Mains electricity||230 V–50 Hz|
|ISO 3166 code||JE|
Jersey is an island in the English Channel off the northwest coast of France. It is a Crown Dependency of the British monarchy. Jersey is called a bailiwick because the person who is the head of law for the island is called the Bailiff. The Bailiwick of Jersey also includes the islands of the Minquiers and Ecréhous, where nobody lives. The other islands of the Channel Islands belong to the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The country code (also used for internet) is JE.
Over 106 000 people live on the main island. Thirty per cent of them live in its only town, Saint Helier.
Along with English and French, more than two thousand people speak Jèrriais, a local variation of the Norman language.
Politics[change | change source]
Jersey is not a part of the United Kingdom or of the European Union, but the King of the UK is the King of Jersey as well. It has its own parliament called the States of Jersey which passes laws for the island.
The Chief Minister of Jersey is in charge of the government. Since the 2022 election, Kristina Moore has been the Chief Minister. She is the first woman to have the job.
Jersey is divided into 12 parishes which elect their own politicians and have control over some roads and the Honorary (volunteer) police.
History[change | change source]
People have lived in what we now call Jersey for about 6,000 years. This was before the sea rose and made Jersey an island. There are many very old buildings like La Hougue Bie.
The island was joined to Normandy in 933. Normandy then took control of England in 1066, but Jersey was still in Normandy, not in England. In 1204, King John lost his land in France, but the Channel Islanders wanted to be ruled by the English king, not the French king. Because the Channel Islands chose England over France, the English kings let them have their own laws and governments.
During the English Civil War (1642-1651), the future King Charles II stayed in Jersey because the important Islanders supported the monarchy. When he became King, Charles II gave one of these people a colony in America, which became New Jersey.
In 1769, there was not a lot of food and the rich were selling food made in the island to other countries. Many islanders went to St Helier, rioted and took over the Royal Court. In 1771, the British Government made changes, like introducing a single book of laws and stopping the Royal Court making laws in the future without the States.
Jersey was invaded by the French in the Battle of Jersey in 1781. Major Pierson led an army to fight the French in the Royal Square and won, but he died in the fight.
In Victorian times, the island become more British. More people started to talk in English and more English people moved to the island.
During World War 2, Jersey was controlled by the Nazis. It was freed on 9 May 1945, which is called Liberation Day and is the national day of Jersey.
Geography[change | change source]
Jersey is an island. It is in the English Channel, a sea in between France and England. It is 22 kilometres (14 miles) from France and 160 kilometres (100 miles) from England. It is the biggest of the Channel Islands, a group of islands. The other big Channel Island is called Guernsey.
The island is around 9 miles from east to west and 5 miles from north to south, so it is often called "nine-by-five".
Climate[change | change source]
Ths island has mild summers and mild winters. In summer, it is normally 12 to 20 degrees Celsius. In the winter, it is normally 4 to 9 degrees Celsius. The hottest day was 18 July 2022, when it was 37.9 degrees Celcius. The coldest day was -10.3 degrees Celsius in 1894.
Culture[change | change source]
Jersey's culture is a mixture of French and British culture. The people speak English, but the old language is called Jèrriais, which is like French.
Because Jersey is an island, fish is a popular food in the island. There is a fish market in the middle of St Helier which sells fresh fish. Jersey is famous for its milk (from Jersey Cows) and its potatoes (called Jersey Royals).
Jersey's newspaper is called the Jersey Evening Post which has been printed since 1890.
There is a musical festival every year called the Weekender which happens in Trinity.
The Jersey Eisteddfod is a big art, music, drama, language and dance competition that happens every year. Many islanders take part and are given certificates.
Jersey takes part in the Commonwealth Games and the Island Games (which happened in Jersey in 1997 and 2015). Jersey does not have famous sports teams, so islanders who can play sports really well often play for England or other countries in the UK.
Economy[change | change source]
Jersey has a lot of finance companies who manage people's money. Some call it a tax haven because it has low taxes and many people that use its businesses to pay lower taxes.
Jersey also has a lot of hotels and farms.
Parishes[change | change source]
There are 12 parishes on the island.
Saint Helier is the capital and main town of Jersey. There are many shops, offices, parks and important buildings. The harbour of the island is in St Helier where boats take people to England and France. There is a castle called Elizabeth Castle on a small island near the town.
Saint Saviour is on the east of Saint Helier. There are lots of houses and many people who live here work in Saint Helier.
Saint Clement is in the south east of the island. It is the smallest parish in area.
Grouville is next to Saint Clement. It has a large golf course and a very old building called La Hougue Bie.
Saint Martin is north of Grouville. It has a large castle in the village of Gorey called Mont Orgeuil Castle.
Trinity has lots of farms. Jersey's zoo is in Trinity.
Saint John is in the north of the island. Sorel Point is the most northern point of the island.
Saint Mary has the smallest number of people than any other parish.
Saint Ouen is the biggest parish in area. It has Saint Ouen's Bay, a large beach which is good for surfing.
Saint Peter has the island's airport.
Saint Brelade has a beach that many people like called St Brelade's Bay and a lighthouse called Corbière Lighthouse.
Saint Lawrence is in the middle of the island which has the Jersey War Tunnels, an old hospital from World War 2 which is now a museum.
References[change | change source]
- ↑ "Anthem for Jersey". www.gov.je."Anthem for Jersey". www.gov.je.
- ↑ "Bulletin 2: Place of birth, ethnicity, length of residency, marital status" (PDF). Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- ↑ "Members". statesassembly.gov.je. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
- ↑ "Jersey facts and figures".
- ↑ "Measuring Jersey's Economy" (PDF). 28 September 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- ↑ Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations ESCAP, February 2009
Other websites[change | change source]
- About Jersey (Visitors' guide) Archived 2008-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Les Pâraîsses d'Jèrri en Jèrriais Archived 2008-04-15 at the Wayback Machine (map of parishes, coat-of-arms, and history)
- States of Jersey (Jersey government's website)
- BBC Jersey
- Jersey History
- This is Jersey (Local Portal) Archived 2020-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Jersey Insight (Local Portal) Archived 2012-09-15 at the Wayback Machine
- "Jersey". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Map of Jersey Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine