Croatia

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Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Lijepa naša domovino
Our beautiful homeland

Location of  Croatia  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Croatia  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.8°N 16°E / 45.8; 16
Official languages Croatian
Ethnic groups (2001) 89.6% Croats,
4.5% Serbs,
5.9% others and unspecified
Demonym Croat, Croatian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović[1]
 -  Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković
 -  Speaker of Parliament Josip Leko
Establishment
 -  Principality 9th century, independent c. 840 
 -  Kingdom 925 
 -  Union with Hungary 1102 
 -  Joined Habsburg Empire 1 January 1527 
 -  Independence of SHS from Austria–Hungary 29 October 1918 
 -  Co-founded Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia) 4 December 1918 
 -  Yugoslavia becomes Republic 29 November 1943 
 -  Decision on independence 25 June 1991 
 -  Declaration of independence 8 October 1991 
Area
 -  Total 56,594 km2 (126th)
21,851 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.09
Population
 -  2011 census 4,290,612[2]
 -  Density 75.8/km2
196.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $80.983 billion (75th)
 -  Per capita $18,338 (48th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $64.160 billion (65th)
 -  Per capita $14,529 (44th)
Gini (2008) 29[3]
low
HDI (2011) 0.796[4]
high · 46th
Currency Kuna (HRK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code 385
Internet TLD .hr

Croatia is a country in Southeastern Europe. Its capital city is Zagreb.

The Republic of Croatia is a small country between the Mediterranean Sea and Central Europe. It was one of the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It became independent in 1991. It joined the European Union on 1 July 2013.

History[change | change source]

A very long time ago, in this territory lived Illyrian people. They were ruled by Rome. In the seventh century AD, northern Slavic people came to live in the Balkan peninsula. Austria-Hungary made Croatia free from the Ottoman Empire and was ruled in today's Croatia until 1918. In 1918 it became a part of Yugoslavia which was taken over in World War II. After a small war with Italy a fascist dictatorship formed the Independent State of Croatia in 1941. It was not independent for long. Like all other countries in Central Europe the Nazi Germany had strong influence (see also Jasenovac concentration camp).

In 1945, Croatia became a part of new, communist Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) which collapsed in 1991. Croatia is now independent for the second time.

Dalmatia is part of Croatia. Today Croatia is popular for tourists. The country's reliable economy makes it possible for Croatia to join the European Union on 1 July 2013.[5]

Geography[change | change source]

A map of Croatia

Croatia is in Central and Southeast Europe. The Adriatic Sea is the southwest border. Croatia also has borders with Hungary, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Slovenia.

Croatia is the 127th largest country in the world.[6] The highest point is the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet). Thousands of islands are part of Croatia. 48 have people living there year round. The largest islands are Cres and Krk.[6] Major rivers are the Sava, Drava, Kupa and Danube.

There are many deep caves in Croatia. 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes.

Climate[change | change source]

Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate. Average temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar. The warmest are at the Adriatic coast.

Biodiversity[change | change source]

There are several ecoregions in Croatia. The coastline, forests, mountains, and rivers give Croatia diverse flora and fauna. There are more than a thousand endemic species.

Croatia is home to the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm.

There are 444 protected areas of Croatia. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Politics[change | change source]

Croatia adopted its constitution in 1990.[7] It declared independence from Yugoslavia on 8 October 1991.

The President of the Republic is the head of state. The President is directly elected to a five-year term. The Constitution limits the President to a maximum of two terms. Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović became president on 15 February 2015.[1]

The Prime Minister of Croatia is the head of government. Since 22 January 2016, the prime minister of the government is Tihomir Orešković.

Administrative divisions[change | change source]

County Seat Area (km2) Population at
2011 Census
Zastava bjelovarsko bilogorske zupanije.gif Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652 119,743
Flag of Brod-Posavina County.svg Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 158,559
Flag of Dubrovnik-Neretva County.png Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783 122,783
Zastava Istarske županije.svg Istria Pazin 2,820 208,440
Flag of Karlovac county.svg Karlovac Karlovac 3,622 128,749
Flag of Koprivnica-Križevci County.png Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746 115,582
Flag of Krapina-Zagorje-County.svg Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224 133,064
Flag of Lika-Senj County.png Lika-Senj Gospić 5,350 51,022
Medjimurje-flag.gif Međimurje Čakovec 730 114,414
Zastava Osječko-baranjske županije.png Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 304,899
Flag of Požega-Slavonia County.png Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 78,031
Flag of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County.png Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582 296,123
Flag of Sisak-Moslavina County.png Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463 172,977
Flag of Split-Dalmatia County.svg Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534 455,242
Flag of Šibenik-Knin County.png Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939 109,320
Flag of Varaždin County.png Varaždin Varaždin 1,261 176,046
Flag of Virovitica-Podravina County.png Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 84,586
Flag of Vukovar-Syrmia County.svg Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,448 180,117
Flag of Zadar County.png Zadar Zadar 3,642 170,398
Zagreb County.png Zagreb County Zagreb 3,078 317,642
Flag of Zagreb.svg City of Zagreb Zagreb 641 792,875

Economy[change | change source]

Salt mine in Ston

Croatia is one of the richest countries of the Balkan Peninsula and of the former Yugoslavia's countries. But Croatia had also the highest cost prices of the whole Central Europe. The average monthly salary/wages in Croatia standing on 739 euro or nearly $1000 USD.[8]

The retirement age for men is 65 years and for women 60 years.[9] The health care enjoys relative strong protection for the country's inhabitants.

Education[change | change source]

The education is free and required until the child reaches the age of 15. Many choose to continue their studies in high school until the age of 18.[10]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Grabar-Kitarovic elected Croatia's first woman president". 12 January 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30765822. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  2. (in Croatian and English) (PDF) Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. June 2011. p. 13. ISSN 1332-0297. http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2011/SI-1441.pdf. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  3. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  4. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  5. "Croatia to become EU member 1 July 2013". Croatian Times. May 23, 2011. http://www.croatiantimes.com/news/General_News/2011-05-23/19468/Croatia_to_become_EU_member_1_July_2013. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hr.html. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  7. "EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/09/world/evolution-in-europe-conservatives-win-in-croatia.html?ref=croatia. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  8. http://www.croatiantimes.com/news/Business/2010-06-29/11983/Average_salaries_in_top_Croatian_firms_up_to_11,400_Euros
  9. http://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/89/country-profiles/croatia/
  10. http://www.humanrights.gov.se/php/rapporter/documents/Europa%20och%20Centralasien/Kroatien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010.pdf

Other websites[change | change source]