Parliamentary republic

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States with a parliamentary system are shown in red and orange. Red is a constitutional monarchy. Orange is a parliamentary republic. Green is where the parliament helps the executive, but does not choose it.

A parliamentary republic is a name for a government (system of managing people). The system is used in many countries.

What it Looks Like[change | change source]

In a parliamentary system, the legislature is the part of government that makes laws. The legislature also gives power to the executive (the part of government that enforces laws). This is the basic form of a parliamentary republic. The difference is how the legislature gets its power. The legislature is not chosen by a ruler or by birth. The people choose the legislature in an election. This means that the executive gets its power from the legislature, and the legislature gets its power from the people.

How It Works[change | change source]

The people choose the legislature. There are many people in the legislature. That group then gets together to choose one person to be their leader. The leader is often part of the legislature. The name for this job is Prime Minister in most countries. The Prime Minister is the head of government. This person leads the country. This way, the people are the power behind the parliamentary republic. They choose the units that make government work.

This is different from other parliamentary systems because the legislature is chosen in a different way. In other parliamentary systems, members are chosen by the head of state, the local leaders, or by birth. In a parliamentary republic, the people choose the members. The people do this through elections. Sometimes they vote for every person in parliament. Other times they vote for people in their area. The politicians they elect go to parliament to make laws and select the head of state. This gives the people power to decide who is in government.

Examples[change | change source]

Country Parliamentary republic adopted
Albania Albania 1991
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1991[note 1]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991
Botswana Botswana 1966
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1989
Cape Verde Cape Verde 1990
Croatia Croatia 2000
Czech Republic Czech Republic 1993
Dominica Dominica 1978
East Timor East Timor 1999
Estonia Estonia 1991[note 2]
Ethiopia Ethiopia 1991
Finland Finland 1919
Germany Germany 1949[note 3]
Greece Greece 1975
Hungary Hungary 1990
Iceland Iceland 1944
 India 1950
Iraq Iraq 2005
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1949
Israel Israel 1948
Italy Italy 1946
Kiribati Kiribati 1979
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 2010
Latvia Latvia 1991[note 4]
Lebanon Lebanon 1941
Libya Libya 2012
Lithuania Lithuania 1991[note 5]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 1991
Malta Malta 1974
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 1979
 Mauritius 1992
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1986
Moldova Moldova 1994[note 6]
Mongolia Mongolia 1949
Montenegro Montenegro 1992
Nauru Nauru 1968
Nepal Nepal 2008
Pakistan Pakistan 2010[1][2]
Poland Poland 1990
Samoa Samoa 2007
San Marino San Marino 0301
Serbia Serbia 1991
Singapore Singapore 1995
Slovakia Slovakia 1993
Slovenia Slovenia 1991
Somalia Somalia 2012
South Africa South Africa 1961
Switzerland Switzerland 1848
 Trinidad and Tobago 1976
Turkey Turkey 1946
Vanuatu Vanuatu 1980

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Was a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  2. Estonia was a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état.
  3. At the end of World War II Germany was divided into West Germany and East Germany. This date shows the start of the Federal Republic of Germany, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
  4. Latvia was a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934. The then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940, Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  5. Lithuania was previously a parliamentary republic between 1920 and 1926 when democratic government was overthrown in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  6. The first parliamentary elections were held in February and March 1990. The Communist Party of Moldova was the only group in this election. Other people were allowed to be in the election without a group. In 1991, the country moved away from Soviet Union. In 1994, the Moldovans held the first free elections.

References[change | change source]

  1. By Kiran Khalid, CNN (2010-04-09). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". CNN.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  2. "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution' | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. Retrieved 2010-04-14.