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Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Қазақстан Республикасы  (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respublikasy
  • Республика Казахстан  (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Emblem of Kazakhstan
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным
Menıñ Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
Official languages
Common languages
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Oljas Bektenov
Maulen Ashimbayev
Nurlan Nigmatulin
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declared Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Declared Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
Steady 18,448,600[4] (63rd)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $534.271 billion[5] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $28,514[5] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $164.207 billion[5] (54th)
• Per capita
Decrease $8,763[5] (71st)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 27.5[6]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.800[7]
very high · 58th
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Driving sideright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD
Map of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is a landlocked country in the middle of Eurasia. Its official name is the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is the ninth biggest country in the world, and it is also the biggest landlocked country in the world. Before the end of the Soviet Union, it was called "Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic". The president of the country from 1991 through March 2019 was Nursultan Nazarbayev. Astana is the capital city of Kazakhstan. Almaty was the capital until 1998, when it moved to Astana.

The Kazakh language, which is a Turkic language, is the native language, but Russian has equal official status for all administrative and institutional purposes.[8] Islam is the largest religion- about 70% of the population are Muslims, with Christianity practiced by 26%;[9] Russia leases (rents) the land for the Baikonur Cosmodrome (site of Russian spacecraft launches) from Kazakhstan.

Geography[change | change source]

Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country mostly in Asia with a small western part across the Ural River in Europe. It has borders with the Russian Federation in the north and west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the southwest, and China in the far east. The northern border is mostly with Siberia, Russia, so Russia has the longest border with Kazakhstan.[10] Basically, Kazakhstan runs from the Caspian Sea in the west to the mainly Muslim Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang. Kazakhstan has no ocean shoreline, but borders the Caspian Sea, which boats use to get to neighboring countries. The Caspian Sea is an Endorheic basin without connections to any ocean.

Natural resources[change | change source]

Kazakhstan has plenty of petroleum, natural gas, and mining. It attracted over $40 billion in foreign investment since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output. According to some estimates,[11] Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas.[12]

Regions[change | change source]

Kazakhstan is divided into 17 regions. They are divided into districts.

Almaty and Astana cities have the status of State importance and are not in any region.[13] Baikonur city has a special status because it is leased to Russia for Baikonur cosmodrome until 2050.[13]

Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan moved its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997.

Coat of arms Full English name Type Capital Full Kazakh name Full Russian name Standard time
Abai Region region Semey Абай облысы
Abai oblysy
Абайская область
Abaiskaya Oblast′
Akmola Region region Kokshetau Ақмола облысы
Aqmola oblysy
Акмолинская область
Akmolinskaya Oblast′
Aktobe Region region Aktobe Ақтөбе облысы
Aqtöbe oblysy
Актюбинская область
Aktyubinskaya Oblast′
Almaty city Алматы қаласы
Almaty qalasy
город Алматы
gorod Almaty
Almaty Region region Qonaev Алматы облысы
Almaty oblysy
Алматинская область
Almatinskaya Oblast′
Astana city Астана қаласы
Astana qalasy
город Астана
gorod Astana
Atyrau Region Atyrau Атырау облысы
Atyrau oblysy
Атырауская область
Atyrauskaya Oblast′
Baikonur city Байқоңыр қаласы
Baiqoñyr qalasy
город Байконур
gorod Baykonur
East Kazakhstan Region region Oskemen Шығыс Қазақстан облысы
Şyğys Qazaqstan oblysy
Восточно-Казахстанская область
Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast′
Jambyl Region region Taraz Жамбыл облысы
Jambyl oblysy
Жамбылская область
Zhambylskaya Oblast′
Jetisu Region region Taldykorgan Жетісу облысы
Jetısu oblysy
Жетысуская область
Zhetysuskaya Oblast′
Karaganda Region region Karaganda Қарағанды облысы
Qarağandy oblysy
Карагандинская область
Karagandinskaya Oblast′
Kostanay Region region Kostanay Қостанай облысы
Qostanai oblysy
Костанайская область
Kostanayskaya Oblast′
Kyzylorda Region region Kyzylorda Қызылорда облысы
Qyzylorda oblysy
Кызылординская область
Kyzylordinskaya Oblast′
Mangystau Region region Aktau Маңғыстау облысы
Mañğystau oblysy
Мангыстауская область
Mangystauskaya Oblast′
North Kazakhstan Region region Petropavl Солтүстік Қазақстан облысы
Soltüstık Qazaqstan oblysy
Северо-Казахстанская область
Severo-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast′
Pavlodar Region region Pavlodar Павлодар облысы
Pavlodar oblysy
Павлодарская область
Pavlodarskaya Oblast′
Shymkent city Шымкент қаласы
Şymkent qalasy
город Шымкент
gorod Shymkent
Turkistan Region
(formerly South Kazakhstan)
region Turkistan Түркістан облысы
Türkıstan oblysy
Туркестанская область
Turkestanskaya Oblast′
Ulytau Region region Jezkazgan Ұлытау облысы
Ūlytau oblysy
Улытауская область
Ulytauskaya Oblast′
West Kazakhstan Region region Oral Батыс Қазақстан облысы
Batys Qazaqstan oblysy
Западно-Казахстанская область
Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast′

Population[change | change source]

The population of Kazakhstan is 17,165,000. It takes the 62th place in the List of countries by population. Average density is one of the lowest on earth with almost 6 people/km2 ( List of countries by population density).

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2016 года". Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  2. Schneider, Johann F.; Larsen, Knud S.; Krumov, Krum; Vazow, Grigorii (2013). Advances in International Psychology: Research Approaches and Personal Dispositions, Socialization Processes and Organizational Behavior. Kassel university press GmbH. p. 164. ISBN 978-3-86219-454-4.
  3. Kazakhstan Archived 30 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. CIA World Factbook.
  4. "Негізгі". stat.gov.kz. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  6. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  7. "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  8. The constitution of Kazakhstan Archived 2009-04-18 at the Wayback Machine, CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN: 1. The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. 2. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language.
  9. "The results of the national population census in 2009". Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 12 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  10. "Afghanistan". CIA - The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  11. Mineral Wealth. homestead.com
  12. International Crisis Group, 2007. Central Asia's Energy Risks, Asia Report No. 133 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.


  1. Kazakhstani includes all citizens, in contrast to Kazakh, which is the demonym for ethnic Kazakhs.[2]

Other websites[change | change source]