Xinjiang (also transliterated as Sinkiang) is a region of the People's Republic of China. It is also claimed by the Republic of China (as both the PRC and ROC claim the mainland and the island of Taiwan). It is a large, less populated area. It is over 1.6 million km2, which takes up about one sixth of the country's land.
In the 19th century, when the name of the Silk Road was first used by a German geographer, it just included the land route from Xinjiang to central Asia. Xinjiang sits at the heart of the Silk Road in China. At that time the country was often called "Chinese Turkestan".
Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and Jammu and Kashmir's Leh District to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan to the west, Pakistan, and Kashmir region to the southwest.
The east-west chain of the Tian Shan Mountains separate Dzungaria in the north from the Tarim Basin in the south. Dzungaria is dry steppe. The Tarim Basin is desert surrounded by oases. In the east is the Turpan Depression. The Taklamakan Desert is also in Xinjiang. Urumqi, the capital, Turpan, Kashgar, Karamay, Yining and Shihezi are the major cities.