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History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976)

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People's Republic of China
  • 中華人民共和國 (Chinese)
  • Chunghwa Jenmin Kunghokuo
  • 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
  • Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
National emblem of China
National emblem

  • 東方紅 / 东方红
  • Tungfang Hung
  • Dōngfāng Hóng
  • "The East Is Red"
  • (de facto, 1966–1976)
Location of China
GovernmentUnitary Maoist one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian dictatorship[1][2]
CCP Chairman 
• 1949-1976
Mao Zedong
• 1976
Hua Guofeng
LegislatureChinese People's Political Consultative Conference (until 1954)
National People's Congress (from 1954)
• Established
• Disestablished
ISO 3166 codeCN
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Republic of China
Post-Mao China

The time period from October 1949 until September 1976 is known in the history of the People's Republic of China as Red China.[3]

Before 1949[change | change source]

Chinese Civil War[change | change source]

Since 1921, the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) were helping each other to unify China, which had divided into small groups known as Warlords.[4]

In 1927, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, former leader of the KMT, they began to disagree with each other, until Chiang Kai-shek killed CPC people while the CPC betrayed the KMT by founding our own chinese republic (Chinese Soviet Republic), starting the Chinese Civil War.[5]

Second United Front[change | change source]

In 1937, the KMT and CCP decided to stop fighting and fight against Japan. The Japanese Army had been invading and conquering parts of China since 1931; forming the Second United Front.[6][7]

End of the Anti-Japanese War[change | change source]

In August 1945, the KMT and the CPC with help of the Soviet Union, United States and United Kingdom, kick the Japan out of the China and the japanese forces surrender.

After the World War II, the KMT and the CPC had tried to make the peace and create a united government in China, but the both of the sides don't agreed with other, starting again the Chinese Civil War in 1946.

Early years of the People's Republic (1949 - 1952)[change | change source]

Foundation of the People's Republic of China[change | change source]

In October 1949, Mao Zedong, main communist leader since 1930s, create the People's Republic of China after a discuss in Beijing, the new capital of the China. The KMT, also know as nationalists, flee to Taipei and moves the Republic of China to Taiwan.

Also, since 1949 until 1960, Some nationalists troops continued in mainland China, fighting against the People's Republic of China and your army.

Post-War China[change | change source]

In 1950, for the first time since the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, China had a time of peace for start your reconstruction from the damage caused by the Chinese Civil War and the World War II. So, Mao Zedong started the Land Reform and the collectivisation of land.[8]

Korean War[change | change source]

In 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea. The UN sent forces to help South Korea and stop North Korea's advance. With the help of the UN, South Korea managed to capture large chunks of land and invade North Korea.

The Chinese warned that if the UN and South Koreans invaded North Korea, they would send help to North Korea. General Douglas MacArthur ignored the warning and China sent troops to help North Korea which easily reversed the war again.

In 1953 the Korean War was stopped with a small armistice of peace between both sides.

Consolidation of the Chinese Communist Party (1953 - 1965)[change | change source]

The chinese help to North Korea in the Korean War delayed China's postwar reconstruction.

A few months after Mao Zedong created the PRC, he sent some diplomats to Moscow, but was received coldly, as Stalin and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union did not trust Communism followed by the PRC.

The chinese atomic bomb[change | change source]

In 1964 the People's Republic of China tested your own atomic bomb in Xinjiang.

The "Great Leap Forward"[change | change source]

The Chairman Mao Zedong in 1958 declared a plan for the fast industrialization of the China and it ended in 1961. The Great Leap Forward failed to bring industrialization and the famine that it created killed millions of people. Some people think it to be the biggest famine in history.[9][10][11]

Cultural Revolution (1966 - 1976)[change | change source]

After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong sought to eliminate all liberal or revisionist opposition within the Chinese Communist Party, which increasingly disagreed with Mao's actions. Knowed as Cultural Revolution, was started in 1966 and ended it in 1976, after Mao's death.[12][13]

Mao's Death[change | change source]

Mao had been in poor health for several years and had declined visibly for at least six months prior to his death. There are unconfirmed reports that he possibly had ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease. Mao's last public appearance was on 27 May 1976, where he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing.

At around 5:00PM on 2 September 1976, Mao suffered a heart attack, far more severe than his previous two and affecting a much larger area of his heart. Three days later, on 5 September, Mao's condition was still critical. On the afternoon of 7 September, Mao's condition completely deteriorated. Mao's organs failed quickly and he fell into a coma shortly before noon where he was put on life support machines. He was taken off life support over 12 hours later, quarter to midnight and was pronounced dead at 12:08 am on 9 September 1976.

His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. There was a three-minute silence observed during this service. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, despite his wishes to be cremated and he had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November 1956.[14][15]

Hua Guofeng's Government (1976)[change | change source]

Hua Guofeng was appointed as Mao Zedong's successor and took office after his death in 1976, Contrary to what many think, Guofeng was Mao's de facto successor, before Deng Xiaoping.

Guofeng also decreed the end of the Cultural Revolution, arrested the Gang of Four, opened diplomatic relations for the first time with Europe and the Americas and was the forerunner of the economic reforms that would later be carried out by Deng Xiaoping.

From 1978 until 1981, most of the Chinese Communist Party began to pressure Hua Guofeng to leave his post, which happened in June 1981.[16]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Outlawed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976)

References[change | change source]

  1. Pei, Minxin (2021). "China: Totalitarianism's Long Shadow". Journal of Democracy. 32 (2): 5–21. doi:10.1353/jod.2021.0015. S2CID 234930289.
  2. Garside, Roger (May 2021). "Totalitarian China: Outwardly Strong, Inwardly Weak". Journal of Political Risk. 9 (5).
  3. Appleton, Sheldon (September 1961). "Red China and the United Nations". University of California Press. p. 6. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  4. van Slyke, Lyman P. (1970). "The United Front in China". Journal of Contemporary History. 5 (3): 119–135. ISSN 0022-0094.
  5. Boorman, Howard L.; Boorman, Scott A. (1966). "Chinese Communist Insurgent Warfare, 1935-49". Political Science Quarterly. 81 (2): 171–195. doi:10.2307/2147969. ISSN 0032-3195.
  6. Coble, Parks M. (2007). "China's "New Remembering" of the Anti-Japanese War of Resistance, 1937-1945". The China Quarterly (190): 394–410. ISSN 0305-7410.
  7. Coogan, Anthony (1994). "Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front". Modern China. 20 (3): 282–314. ISSN 0097-7004.
  8. Chang, C. M. (1951). "Mao's Stratagem of Land Reform". Foreign Affairs. 29 (4): 550–563. doi:10.2307/20030861. ISSN 0015-7120.
  9. "China's Great Leap Forward". chronicle.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2024-03-02.
  10. Smil, Vaclav (2004). China's Past, China's Future: Energy, Food, Environment. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-31499-2.
  11. "The Great Leap Forward Period in China, 1958-1960". web.archive.org. 2009-05-13. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2024-03-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. "People's Republic of China: III". www.chaos.umd.edu. Retrieved 2024-03-02.
  13. "The Learning Network". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2024-03-02.
  14. Hays, Jeffrey. "MAO'S DEATH, LEGACY AND DESCENDANTS | Facts and Details". factsanddetails.com. Retrieved 2024-03-02.
  15. "Last public appearance of Chinese leader Mao Zedong, 1976 - Rare Historical Photos". https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/. 2016-12-29. Retrieved 2024-03-02. {{cite web}}: External link in |website= (help)
  16. "Exploring Chinese History :: History :: Current Chinese History :: Comprehensive". www.ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2024-03-02.