A dialect is a variation of a standard language spoken by a group of people. Sometimes people who live in the same place share a dialect. Sometimes people who are similar in some other way, such as social class, share a dialect.
There is no absolute difference between a dialect and a language. British English and American English are dialects of English. They differ slightly in spelling, in pronunciation, and in vocabulary. However, they are "mutually intelligible", which means speakers from both countries can understand each other.
On the other hand, Spanish and Portuguese are now different languages, but historically, Portuguese was once a dialect of Spanish. Catalan Gallego were dialect of Spanish, but today are recognized as separate Languages. In fact Gallego is near to Portuguese and Catalan to Occitan as well
In past times, travel was difficult. Because of this, dialects developed in quite small regions of a country. In Britain there were dialects in the different parts of the country, and traces of this can be heard today.
Differences in dialects can be found:
- in different words (for example, people who speak British English may go to church and people who speak Scottish English may go to kirk)
- in different pronunciations. Words are written the same way but pronounced differently by different speakers.
- in different grammar (for example, most people who speak English may say I dived, but a few say I dove)