Tanzimat

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Mahmud II

The Tanzimat was a period of reforms in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended in 1876.[source?] It intended to modernise the Ottoman Empire, and allowed for religious freedom. Tanzimat means "re-ordering" or "restructuring" the relationship between the state and the different communities, which were named subjects.[1] The period started with the publishing of the Tanzimat edict which was written by Koca Mustafa Reşit Paşa under the order of Sultan Mahmud II. There period began with Hatt-ı Şerif in 1839.[2] It was followed by Hatt-ı Hümayun in 1856. The Constitution of 1876 made these two edicts into law. These laws limited the power of the Sultan.

Hatt-ı Şerif (Noble Script or Edict of Gulhane)[change | change source]

The Hatt-ı Şerif is a legal text and the first act of the Tanzimat made by Sultan Abdülmecid I.[source?] It is also known as the Edict of Gulhane or Noble Script. It began to limit the Sultan's power. It is also begin to establish the basis for citizenship equality.

Hatt-ı Humayun (Imperial Script)[change | change source]

This edict was established 18 days after the Crimea War (1853) on 18 February 1856.[source?] It guaranteed that all subjects of the Ottoman Empire would have security of life, honor, and fortune regardless of their ethnicity or religion.[source?] It promised equality for everyone who lived in the Ottoman Empire. It also reformed the tax system and the military.[3] One of the goals of the edict was to weaken the power of the local governors and eliminate the intermediators between state and subject and finally lay the groundwork for the creation of a modern army.[2]

Koca Mustafa Reşit Paşa

Land code of 1858[change | change source]

The Land Code of 1858 modernized the taxation system and agriculture. It changed the way people owned property. Individuals now had the right to own land. This reform marked the change from survival agriculture to commercial agriculture. That way citizens could make more money. It also was also a more effective way for the Sultan to collect taxes.[4]


Reforms[change | change source]

During the years of the Tanzimat, the Ottoman’s based the reforms on the European great powers.[5]

  1. Clancy-Smith; Smith, Julia; Charles (2014). The Modern Middle East and North Africa: A History in Documents. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9 7 8 0 1 9 5 3 3 8 2 7 0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Khater, Akram Fouad (2011). Sources in History of the Modern Middle East 2e. p. 11.
  3. Khater, Akram Fouad (2011). Sources in History of the Modern Middle East 2e. pp. 71–74.
  4. Anderson, Betty S. (2016). A history of the modern Middle East: rulers, rebels, and rogues. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-8324-8.
  5. Anderson, Betty S. (2015). A history of the modern Middle East: rulers, rebels and rogues. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 81.