Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha (until 1934)
Kemal Atatürk (since 1934)[1]
Reisicumhur Mustafa Kemal Cumhuriyet Bayramı kutlamalarında, Ankara, 29 Ekim 1925.png
1st President of Turkey
In office
29 October 1923 – 10 November 1938
Prime Ministerİsmet İnönü
Fethi Okyar
Celâl Bayar
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byİsmet İnönü
1st Prime Minister of the Government of the Grand National Assembly
In office
3 May 1920 – 24 January 1921
DeputyFevzi Çakmak
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byFevzi Çakmak
1st Speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
In office
24 April 1920 – 29 October 1923
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byFethi Okyar
1st Leader of the Republican People's Party
In office
9 September 1923 – 10 November 1938
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byİsmet İnönü
Personal details
Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa
(Mustafa son of Ali Rıza)

Salonica, Ottoman Macedonia, Ottoman Empire
(now Thessaloniki, Greece)
Died10 November 1938(1938-11-10) (aged 57)
Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Resting placeEthnography Museum, Ankara (21 November 1938 – 10 November 1953)
Anıtkabir, Ankara (from 10 November 1953)
Political partyRepublican People's Party
Other political
Motherland and Liberty
Committee of Union and Progress (He left it.)
Association for the Defense of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia (Republican People's Party after 1923.)
Spouse(s)Latife Uşaklıgil (1923–25)
ParentsAli Rıza Efendi
Zübeyde Hanım
RelativesMakbule Atadan (sister)
AwardsList (24 medals)
Military service
Allegiance Ottoman Empire (1893–1919)
Ankara Government (1920–1923)
 Turkey (1923–1927)
Branch/service Ottoman Empire Army
Turkish Army
RankMajor General (Ottoman Army)
Marshal (Turkish Army)
Commands19th Division
16th Corps
2nd Army
7th Army
Yildirim Army Group
Army of the Grand National Assembly
External timeline

Kemal Atatürk[1] (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk,[3] Mustafa Kemal Pasha[a] until 1934, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk;[b] 1881[c] – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish field marshal and statesman who became the first President of Turkey from 1923 until his death in 1938.

He is known for being a leader who freed his people from being controlled by other countries and later for starting changes that founded Turkish nation state based on social and economic nationalism, more modern and similar to Western civilization, mainly France (such as the French model of secularism called laïcité).

Atatürk was born under the name Mustafa in 1881. His birth place was in Salonika, Macedonia (now Thessaloniki, Greece). Salonika was part of the Ottoman Empire at that time. He took the name Kemal as a schoolboy and Atatürk (which means Father of the Turks) when he was president. His father's name was Ali Rıza Efendi. His mother's name was Zübeyde Hanım. He also had a sister whose name was Makbule (Atadan). He became an army officer and the most successful general officer of the empire in World War I, fighting in Gallipoli.

When the Ottoman Empire was ended after the war, Atatürk organized a nationalist movement that created the new, secular, Republic of Turkey. This meant that the country's government was no longer led by hereditary or religious leaders. Visitors to Turkey are often surprised by the importance given to Atatürk in present-day Turkey.

Few countries have such a person in their history. He was a successful military commander, and later established a democratic constitution and put in place changes that set Turkey on the road to becoming a new and developing nation. He inspired many later leaders like Habib Bourguiba, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sukarno, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Faysal I and Mustafa Kemal during a visit to Turkey

His six principles still serve today as a sign post for establishing a democratic government:

  1. Republicanism: Replacing the hereditary monarchy with an elected parliament.
  2. Nationalism: Citizens working together with pride in a common interest.
  3. Laicism: Separating religion from government. It is the guarantee of freedom of religion and conscience in society.
  4. Populism: The equality of all citizens before the law.
  5. Etatism: An economic system combining private enterprise with government-funded monopolies of large industries
  6. Revolutionism: The basis of the other 5 principles. According to the needs of the society, innovations required by the age and science are made as soon as possible.

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى كمال پاشا
    He was known for most of his lifetime as Mustafa Kemal, but is referred to in this article as Atatürk for readability reasons.
  2. /ˈmʊstəfə kəˌmɑːl ˈætətɜːrk/ (About this soundlisten); Turkish: [mustaˈfa ceˈmal aˈtatyɾc]
  3. His birthday is unknown. 19 May –the day he landed to Samsun in 1919 to start the nationalist resistance– is considered his symbolic birthday. It was also claimed that he was born in 1880. See Atatürk's personal life § Birth date

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ID card from 1934
  2. His birthday is unknown. 19 May –the day he landed to Samsun in 1919 to start the nationalist resistance– is considered his symbolic birthday. It was also claimed that he was born in 1880. Zürcher, Erik Jan (1984). The Unionist factor: the role of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement, 1905–1926. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 106.
  3. ID card from 1935

Other websites[change | change source]