|Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)
Anthem: İstiklal Marşı
|Ethnic groups||No official estimates (see demographics section)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Recep Tayyip Erdoğan|
|Deniz Baykal (interim)|
|Legislature||Grand National Assembly|
|Succession to the Ottoman Empire[note 2]|
|23 April 1920|
|24 July 1923|
|29 October 1923|
|7 November 1982|
|783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) (37th)|
• Water (%)
• 2014 census
|77,695,904  (18th)|
|101/km2 (261.6/sq mi) (107th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|$1.569 trillion (17th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|$752 billion (18th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2013)||▼ 40.0
medium · 56th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.759
high · 69th
|Currency||Turkish lira (₺) (TRY)|
|Time zone||FET (UTC+3)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||TR|
Turkey is a republic. There are 81 provinces in Turkey. The money of Turkey is called Turkish Lira. The capital city is Ankara, a city in central Anatolia. The cultural and economic center is in the European side of Istanbul. In the past Istanbul was called Constantinople. The republic was founded in 1923, after World War I and a war of independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı). Before that, Turkey was the core of the Ottoman Empire.
Many civilizations were located in the area that is now Turkey, like the Hittites, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. Many important events in the history of Christianity happened in Turkey. Because it lies in both Europe and Asia, some people see Turkey as the "door" between them.
Modern Turkey's warm and varied climate lets many kinds of food crops grow, and livestock and forestry are important industries. Turkey makes enough food to feed itself. Turkish manufactures include airplanes, electronics, cars, clothing and textiles for home and for other countries.
History[change | change source]
Ancient Anatolia[change | change source]
The first major empire in the area was the Hittites (from the 18th century to the 13th century BC). The Hittites, who spoke one of the Indo-European languages, developed a high culture in Central Anatolia. Their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC and the successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.
From 1950 BCE, Greeks and Assyrians inhabited parts of southeastern Turkey. The Assyrian capital was named Tushhan (900-600 BC). The Assyrians ruled over southeastern Turkey until the Assyrian Empire was conquered by Babylonia in the year 612 BC. Then Anatolia became home for various kingdoms including the Achaemenid Empire, Hellenistic kingdoms, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), Seljuk Empire, and Mongol Empire.
The Ottoman Empire[change | change source]
During the 14th century, after the fall of the Mongol Empire, Lord Osman built a new empire named after himself: the Ottoman Empire. It became one of the longest existing empires of all time. The Empire also stretched across the Balkans, (Yugoslavia and Bulgaria) in Europe. The Kingdom was ruled by Muslim law, but other religions had certain minority rights.
In World War I the Ottoman Empire was one of the Central Powers. During the war, 500,000 Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were massacred in the so-called Armenian Genocide. Turkey denies that the event was genocide. The Central Powers lost the war and the Ottoman Empire was destroyed, but after that Ataturk led the army to get rid of foreign enemies, like the Greeks.
Republic of Turkey[change | change source]
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the first President of Turkey. He made many changes that made Turkey more modern. But some people did not like some of the things he did because they thought they were against Islam. Religious secondary schools were gotten rid of, for example.
For many years Kurdish guerrillas (usually called the "PKK") led by Abdullah Öcalan have been fighting the Turkish government. They said they were fighting so that the Kurds in the south east of Turkey could have autonomy and decide more things for themselves. But the government and most countries in the world call them terrorists.
People[change | change source]
About 80 million people live in Turkey. Most of them are ethnic Turks. About 15% are ethnic Kurds. Many refugees from Syria (over 2 million) live in Turkey because they have run away from the Syrian civil war. Many Romani people live in Istanbul and Edirne (European part of Turkey).
Much of the population in Turkey is made up of teenagers and young adults.
According to a study, Anatolia is genetically more closely related to the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations. The Turks of Anatolia (Asian part of Turkey) have only 13% of genes from populations from Central Asia. The population is mainly from the Greeks, Armenians and Kurds.
European Union[change | change source]
Economy[change | change source]
In the 1970s, many Turks moved to other countries, like Germany, to escape the bad economy at the time and to get better jobs. They often come back to Turkey for their summer holidays. Today, many of the people who left in the 1970s want to move back to Turkey.
Until the 1980s the government owned most companies, but then Prime Minister Turgut Özal sold them. Before, foreigners were usually not allowed to buy companies, land or property. Earthquakes in 1994, 1999, and 2001 slowed economic growth a bit.
Turkey mostly buys and sells with the EU, the United States, the Russian Federation, and Japan. Turkey and the EU agreed not to put a lot of tax on what they buy and sell to each other. After that it was easier for Turkish factories to sell products to the EU and for business people in the EU to buy companies in Turkey.
Turkey has no petroleum or natural gas so it buys them from other countries, like Russia. In 2010, oil was found in the Turkish City of Diyarbakir, but there was not enough oil to extract. Turkey is searching for natural gas in Northern Turkish Cyprus.
Provinces[change | change source]
The capital and second-largest city of Turkey is Ankara. The largest and the most crowded city is Istanbul which is the only city in the world that has land on two different continents. The third largest city is the coastal city of Izmir which is the main port of the country. Turkey is divided into 81 provinces. Each province has its own little government but they can only make decisions about small things: the government in Ankara decides important issues. The provinces are in 7 regions. Each province is divided into districts. There are 923 districts altogether.
Culture[change | change source]
Language[change | change source]
Most people in Turkey speak Turkish. It belongs to the Turkic language group, which also includes many other languages spoken across Asia, such as Azerbaijani and Tatar. The Turkish language came from central Asia, but now it is a bit different from the languages spoken in central Asia. Turks living by the Mediterranean have southern, much thicker, and more masculine accents than western Turkey. Northerners, by the Black Sea have softer accents.
Many of the young adults can also speak English, which is taught throughout Primary, Middle and High school.
Lifestyle[change | change source]
Turkish culture is a modern Islamic culture, with some European influence.
Different parts of Turkey have similar but not exactly the same lifestyles. Southern Turkey is somewhat more traditional. Eastern and South Eastern Turkey is made up of mostly Kurds. They generally have less modern and more Islamic lifestyles.
Majority and minorities[change | change source]
Education[change | change source]
Turkey's literacy rate is currently 95%. People in Turkey are required to go to school for 12 years.
İstanbul University was the first university in Turkey. It was established in 1453. Ankara University was the first university that was started after Turkey became a republic. It was established in 1946.
Earthquakes[change | change source]
The 1999 İzmit earthquake was an approximately 7.4 magnitude earthquake that struck northwestern Turkey on August 17, 1999, at about 3:02 am local time. 18.000 people died in the earthquake. Many people have been killed by earthquakes in Turkey.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Turkey.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: Turkey|
Notes[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2014". Turkish Statistical Institute. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Gini Coefficient by Equivalised Household Disposable Income". Turkstat. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "2014 Human Development Report" (PDF). 14 March 2013. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Berkman CC1, Dinc H, Sekeryapan C, Togan I,. 2008 May. Check date values in:
|date=(help); External link in
- University numbers on the rise in Turkey (Hürriyet Daily News, 4 September 2011)
- "More Than 570 Die In Quake in Turkey", New York Times, retrieved 2010-03-14
- et al. Grosser, Helmut (October 1998). "The Erzincan (Turkey) Earthquake (Ms 6.8) of March 13, 1992 and its Aftershock Sequence". Pure and Applied Geophysics (Birkhäuser Basel) 152 (3): 465-505. http://www.springerlink.com/content/nquhmbx0eay08v5n/. Retrieved March 13, 2010.