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Pharaohs were rulers of ancient Egypt. The word comes from the Coptic language word Per-aa, which means "Great House". Pharaohs were believed to be descended from the gods.

Before the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, kings would wear crowns of different design, to show which part of Egypt they ruled. The red crown was worn in Lower Egypt and the white crown in Upper Egypt. In later history, kings of the whole of ancient Egypt would wear a combination of the two crowns, called a Pschent.

When a Pharaoh died, all the treasure that they owned would be buried with them. The Pyramids were burial tombs for several early Pharaohs. Many later Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. They were mostly men but some were women like Cleopatra and Nefertiti. Pharaohs were considered to be half-man half-god. The first ever pharaoh was Narmer. The Egyptians believed their pharaoh was the god Horus. Pharaohs had several wives but only one was queen.

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