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Pharaohs were rulers of ancient Egypt. The word comes from the Coptic language word Per-aa, which means "Great House". Pharaohs were believed to be descended from the gods.

Before the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, kings wore crowns of different design, to show which part of Egypt they ruled. The red crown was worn in Lower Egypt. The white crown was worn in Upper Egypt. Later, kings of the whole of ancient Egypt wore a combination of the two crowns, called a Pschent.

When a Pharaoh died, all the treasure that they owned was buried with them. The Pyramids were tombs for several early Pharaohs. Many later Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. They were mostly men but some were women like Cleopatra and Nefertiti. Pharaohs were considered to be half-man and half-god.

The first pharaoh was Narmer. The Egyptians believed their pharaoh was the god Horus. Pharaohs had several wives but only one wife was queen.

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