Nectanebo II

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Head of Nectanebo II-MBA Lyon H1701-IMG 0204.jpg

Nectanebo II ruled in 360–342 BC.[1][2][3][4] He was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt, and the last native ruler of ancient Egypt.[5]


Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists developed a style on the reliefs of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.[6] Nectanebo II started the enormous Egyptian temple of Isis (the Iseum).[7]

For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire.[8] However, he was betrayed by a former servant, Mentor of Rhodes. Nectanebo II was finally defeated by combined Persian and Greek forces in the Battle of Pelusium (343 BC). The Persians occupied Memphis and then seized the rest of Egypt. They took the country into the Achaemenid Empire under Artaxerxes III. Nectanebo fled south and was influential for some time; his final fate is unknown.

References[change | change source]

  1. I. A. Ladynin (2009). ""Nectanebos-the-Falcons": Sculpture Images of Nectanebo II Before the God Horus and Their Concept". Vestnik drevnej istorii. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  2. Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology. Springer. p. 384. ISBN 0-306-46158-7.
  3. According to von Beckerath & Dodson; 360–343 BC according to Grimal and 359/58–342/41 BC according to Arnold.
  4. "XXXth Dynasty". Narmer.pl. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  5. "Nakhthorhebyt". Digital Egypt for Universities. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  6. Myśliwiec, Karol (2000). The twilight of ancient Egypt: first millennium B.C. Cornell University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-8014-8630-0.
  7. Grimal, Nicolás (1994). A history of ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 379. ISBN 0-306-46158-7.
  8. Sharpe, Samuel (1838). The History of Egypt under the Ptolemies. London: E. Moxon. p. 19. OCLC 4523393.