|Distribution of lions in Africa|
The lion (Panthera leo) is a large mammal of the Felidae (cat) family. Some large males weigh over 250 kg (550 lb), so it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Today, wild lions live in sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia. Lions are adapted for life in grasslands and mixed areas with trees and grass. The relatively small females are fast runners over short distances, and co-ordinate their hunting of herd animals.
Lions have disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans. They were found in most of Africa, across Eurasia from western Europe to India, and in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru. The lion is now a vulnerable species. There was a decline in its African range of 30–50% over two decades in the second half of the 20th century. Habitat loss and conflicts with humans are the greatest causes of concern.
Lions live for 10 to 14 years when they are in the wild. When they are captured, they can live longer than 20 years. In the wild, males do not usually live longer than 10 years. This is because wounds from fighting with other males make their lives shorter. They usually live in savanna and grassland, though they sometimes live in bushes and forests. Compared to other cats, lions are very social. A group of lions is called a pride. In a pride of lions, there are related females, their young, and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions often hunt together.
Lions are carnivores and scavenge any time meat is available. Carrion makes up more than 50% of their diet. Lions scavenge animals either dead from natural causes (disease) or killed by other predators. They keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, because this means there is a dead or injured animal close by.
Description[change | change source]
Lions hunt many animals; for example, gnus and antelopes. Male lions usually weigh between 150 and 250 kilograms (330 and 550 pounds). Large lions have reached 250 to 270 kg (550 to 600 lb). Females (lionesses) are usually 120 to 182 kg (265 to 401 lb). Mature male lions are the only cats with a mane.
Behaviour[change | change source]
Lions live in groups that are called prides. Ten to forty lions may live in a pride. Each pride has a home area that is called its territory. Lions do not allow other carnivores (meat-eating animals) to hunt in their territory. A territory can be as large as 260 square kilometres (100 square miles). The lions roar is distinct to each individual, and is used for territorial making, and warning off other lions in separate prides (or lone individuals). This however, is usually carried out by competing males.
Lions are not built for speed like cheetahs, but are for stealth. The females usually do the hunting for the pride. However the males can sometimes help if needed, to take down large animals. The lion has large canines which it uses to suffocate its prey by biting its neck and crushing its throat. It also has long retractable claws which act like grappling hooks, to keep hold of the prey whilst delivering the bite.
Even though a lion is good at killing prey for food, they are not among the most dangerous animals.
Breeding[change | change source]
A lioness is ready to have young when she is 2-3 years old. Baby lions are called cubs. Cubs are born after 3 1/2 months. The cubs are born blind; their eyes do not open until they are about a week old, and cannot see well until they are about two weeks old. Lions do not have a den (home) where they would live for a long time. The lioness conceals the cubs in thick bush, gullies or rocky outcrops. If the hiding place has been seen by other predators, then the lioness will move the cubs to a new hiding place. The cubs will be introduced to the pride at about 6 weeks old. The cubs are very vulnerable when the lioness goes out to hunt and needs to leave the cubs behind. Also, when a new male takes over a pride from another male, he usually kills all of the cubs. The cubs' mothers will then mate with the new pride male, which means that the first batch of new cubs will be his offspring. A litter of 2-6, usually 2-3, cubs are born and most of the time only 1-2 cubs survive until introduced to the pride where they are protected by the whole pride.
In zoos lions have been known to breed with tigers. If the parents are a male lion and a female tiger, it's called a liger. A tigon comes from a male tiger and a female lion.
Lions in heraldry[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14000228.
- Nowell & Bauer (2004). "Panthera leo". Database entry includes a long statement of why this species is vulnerable.
- Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.
- An endangered remnant population resides in Gir Forest National Park in India
- Harington, CR ‘Dick’ (1969). Pleistocene remains of the lion-like cat (Panthera atrox) from the Yukon Territory and northern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 6 (5): 1277–88. 
- Smuts, G.L. (1982). Lion. Johannesburg: Macmillian South Africa (Publishers)(Pty.) Ltd.. p. 231. ISBN 0-86954-122-6.
- Schaller, p. 213.
- >"Behavior and Diet". African Wildlife Foundation website. African Wildlife Foundation. 1996. http://www.awf.org/wildlife-conservation/lion. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Top 10 Most Dangerous Animals In The World". Conservation Institute. 28 April 2015. http://www.conservationinstitute.org/top-10-dangerous-animals-in-the-world/. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Nowell & Bauer (2004). Panthera leo. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikispecies has information on: Lion.|