Jump to content

Roma people

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Irish Travellers)
Romani people
Romani flag created in 1933 and accepted at the 1971 World Romani Congress
Total population
2–20 million
Regions with significant populations
 Czech Republic250,000[7]
Romani, languages of native regions
mainly Christianity and Islam, minorities practice Buddhism, Judaism and Bahá'í Faith

The Roma are an ethnic group of Indo-Aryan origin, found mainly in Europe.[10] In English, they are often called Gypsies. Some Roma, but not all consider "Gypsy" to be a slur. The old word "Chingar" is now rarely used. The Roma are people that left India around 500 AD and entered Europe around 1000 AD.[11]

Genetic[change | change source]

A DNA study by Indian and Estonian researchers shows that the Roma people's ancestors originate from Chandala (untouchables), Dalit and Shudra community of their ancestral homeland[12] Gene flow from Turks into the Roma people population at the Ottoman Empire , happened through the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans and Byzantine Empire.[13] Much DNA from the People of the Host Countrys where the roma live in flow also into the Romani people through intermarriages[14][15] Another gene study shows South Indian Tamil people DNA to Romani people,[16] also the Y-DNA H in Roma community if from India.[17] View Romani Men share the R1a1 Y-DNA Haplogroup,[18] who show a Brahmin Ancestry.[19] It is also claimed the Roma people came from Sindh.[20] Also the J and R Y-DNA from Jats can be found in Roma people[21] The newborns of the Romani people from different countries, as a Indian study shows, have the blue-greyish so called Mongolian spot.[22] Another study show's that many Romani Men from the Zargari tribe in Iran at Qazvin Province are born without a foreskin or a very short foreskin, a rare condition called Aposthia.[23] There are populations of Roma all over Europe, but the largest populations are in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans.

There are various groups of Roma: the Roma of East European birth;[24] the Sinti in Germany and the Manouches in France and Catalonia; the Kaló in Spain, Ciganos in Portugal and Gitans of southern France; the Romanichals of Britain; and the Romanlar in Turkey.[25]

Language[change | change source]

The Romani language is now an official language in many European countries under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[26]

Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, during the 1930s.

History[change | change source]

A camp with Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953. (Title of photo: Gypsies camping.)

The 18th-century idea on the Indian birth of the Roma is based on the likeness between Romani[27] and the languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent. The theory is now supported by genetic evidence. The origins of the Roma were not known until 1763, when a theology student, Stefan Vali, met Indian medical students. He noticed that they were physically similar to the Roma he saw in Hungary. He also noticed that they used similar words.[28]

It is believed that the remnants from the Indo-Greeks , the Atsinganos (Untouchables) left the Indian subcontinent as traders about Indo-Roman trade via the Silk Road through Byzantine Empire to Egypt at the time of the Migration period , where they live for centuries.[29] The Copts named them ⲣⲱⲙⲁ (man or human, also these people there) in Coptic. Around the 12th or the 13th centuries, the Roma reached the Balkans, in the wake of the Crusades. From there, they dispersed in Western Europe.[30]

The first arrivals were well accepted. European people thought they were Christian pilgrims. The local people of Europe were fascinated by their nomadic way of life and their new sciences. A Roma was often recruited as a musician, for Horse training and circus artists, a lion tamer, a Blacksmith, a town crier, a hawker, avgroundskeeper, a dishwasher, a cleaner, a lumberjack, a caretaker, a locksmith, and other low jobs. Roma were crossing Europe aboard large caravans, which contained their luggage.[31]

The Egyptians Act of 1530 expelled Roma people from England, and 10,000 expelled Roma people went to the Ottoman Empire and became Muslims. Their descendants have , call themself until today Egyptians.[32]

During World War II, Roma people suffered from the Nazis' persecution and ethnic cleansing policies. Statistics show that about 500,000 Roms died in Nazi concentration camps.[33] The Xoraxane Roma from Bosnia, also named white sedentary muslim gypys was not deportated, because Muslims of Bosnia decleared they belong to us.[34]

Culture[change | change source]

The culture of roma people differs from country to country where there live in and also many differences from group to group. The different Religions also have a big influence of the difference of roma-culture. The Roma left a musical heritage. Guitars and violins are part of their traditions. The Roma influenced musical styles in Europe, such as the belly dance, flamenco, rumba, and jazz.[31]

On 8 April 1971, the Roma nationality was legally recognized in Europe. Since then, 8 April is the Roma national day.[35] Most Romani people practise endogamy and arranged marriage's in very young age. Exogamy, marrying a Gadjo (non-Roma), is seldom. In some groups Cousin marriage is prohibited.[36]

Romani cuisine differs from one country to another[37]

Didicoy is a term used by Roma people for people who are of mixed Roma blood.[38] The ancestry of these people is not completely Roma. Full blooded Roma and didicoy do not get along well with each other.[38] The Romanichal (full blooded Roma people) often believe that their reputation for criminality is based on the actions of didicoys and other nomadic groups that are refered to as "Gypsies".[38] Some families of mixed blood often call themselves "kyes".

Often, the non-nomadic population of Roma people in the United Kingdom use the term Didicoy as slang for all Roma people. An example of an old Romani song about a mixed blooded Roma is the "Romano Rai".[39]

Beliefs[change | change source]

The Roma's religions are mostly Eastern Christianity, Catholicism, and Islam. Baptism by the Dasikane (Christian Roma) and male circumcision by the Xoraxane (Muslim Roma) are practiced. Their ancient religion was Hinduism[40] and Buddhism.[41] Some formally Christian and Muslim Roma have embraced the Noahidic faith. According to Jewish law, non-Jews do not have to convert, but are supposed to obey the Noahide commandments. Persons who submit to the commandments are called children of Noah (B'nei Noach) Noahids.[42] In Hungary there are many former Christian Roma who adopted Buddhism, especially in Hungary.[43] There are also some Christian Roma groups, who taken one of the several evangelicalism faith.[44] Several Muslim Roma belong to one of a Sufism Tarika.[45] The Old Dualist-Religion of the Roma people called Romanipen is a simple belive in Devla-God and Beng-Satan .[46] There is no holy books but Priests called Rashai derived from Rishi, the Priests wife is called Rashani.[47][48] Only Roma or partial roma may be members.[49] Some Roma belonges to Bahá'í Faith and Mormonism[50]

Persecutions[change | change source]

Even though they have been recognized, they still suffer from discrimination and antiziganism. Some countries still apply discriminatory attitudes towards Roma, especially in workplaces and schools, where they are not accepted.[35]

Their squatting communities also irritate locals.[51] The Romani created an association in 1978 to defend their rights.[52]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Bulgaria". commission.europa.eu.
  2. "Spain". commission.europa.eu.
  3. "Hungary". commission.europa.eu.
  4. "Slovakia". commission.europa.eu.
  5. "France". commission.europa.eu.
  6. "Greece". commission.europa.eu.
  7. "Czech Republic". commission.europa.eu.
  8. "Italy". commission.europa.eu.
  9. "Germany". commission.europa.eu.
  10. Romani People Indo – Aryan ethnic group - Nomadic itinerants.
  11. "The Lost Tribes of India". 2 June 2004.
  12. Nelson, Dean (3 December 2012). "European Roma descended from Indian 'untouchables', genetic study shows". The Telegraph.
  13. Bánfai, Zsolt; Melegh, Béla I.; Sümegi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Miseta, Attila; Kásler, Miklós; Melegh, Béla (13 June 2019). "Revealing the Genetic Impact of the Ottoman Occupation on Ethnic Groups of East-Central Europe and on the Roma Population of the Area". Frontiers in Genetics. 10: 558. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00558. PMC 6585392. PMID 31263480.
  14. Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Mendizabal, Isabel; Harmant, Christine; de Pablo, Rosario; Ioana, Mihai; Angelicheva, Dora; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Makukh, Halyna; Netea, Mihai G.; Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Tournev, Ivailo; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David (June 29, 2016). "Origins, admixture and founder lineages in European Roma". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (6): 937–943. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.201. PMC 4867443. PMID 26374132.
  15. Font-Porterias, N.; Arauna, L. R.; Poveda, A.; Bianco, E.; Rebato, E.; Prata, M. J.; Calafell, F.; Comas, D. (2019). "European Roma groups show complex West Eurasian admixture footprints and a common South Asian genetic origin". PLOS Genetics. 15 (9): e1008417. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008417. PMC 6779411. PMID 31545809.
  16. Palanichamy, M. G.; Mitra, B.; Debnath, M.; Agrawal, S.; Chaudhuri, T. K.; Zhang, Y. P. (2014). "Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia". PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e109331. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j9331P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109331. PMC 4192148. PMID 25299580.
  17. Rai, Niraj; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G.; van Driem, George; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy (November 1, 2012). "The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e48477. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748477R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048477. PMC 3509117. PMID 23209554.
  18. Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Nagy, Melinda; Chang, Yuet Meng (2011). "Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma People". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 145 (1): 21–29. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21454. PMID 21484758.
  19. Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K.; Bhanwer, A. J. S.; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K. (January 29, 2009). "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system". Journal of Human Genetics. 54 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2. PMID 19158816. S2CID 22162114 – via www.nature.com.
  20. Report, Bureau (September 25, 2006). "HYDERABAD: Gypsies hail from Sindh, claims Dr Kazi". DAWN.COM.
  21. Nagy, Melinda; Henke, Lotte; Henke, Jürgen; Chatthopadhyay, Prasanta K.; Völgyi, Antónia; Zalán, Andrea; Peterman, Orsolya; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Pamjav, Horolma (June 14, 2007). "Searching for the origin of Romanies: Slovakian Romani, Jats of Haryana and Jat Sikhs Y-STR data in comparison with different Romani populations". Forensic Science International. 169 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.07.020. PMID 16950585 – via ScienceDirect.
  22. Gupta, D.; Thappa, D. M. (30 June 2013). "Mongolian spots". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 79 (4): 469–478. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.113074. PMID 23760316.
  23. Sadeghipour Roudsari, Sadegh; Roudsari, Sadegh Sadeghipour; Esmailzadehha, Neda (2010). "Aposthia: A case report". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 45 (8): e17–e19. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.05.030. PMID 20713198.
  24. Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmár, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; De Pablo, Rosario; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba (2004). "Mutation History of the Roma/Gypsies". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (4): 596–609. doi:10.1086/424759. PMC 1182047. PMID 15322984.
  25. Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gresham, David; Calafell, Francesc (2001). "Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): a review". BMC Medical Genetics. 2 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. PMC 31389. PMID 11299048.
  26. "Patrin: A Brief History of the Roma". Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
  27. "Patrin glossary". Archived from the original on 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
  28. "Histoire et origine des Roms". romove.radio.cz.
  29. Salomon, Richard (1991). "Epigraphic Remains of Indian Traders in Egypt". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 111 (4): 731–736. doi:10.2307/603404. JSTOR 603404 – via JSTOR.
  30. Pankhurst, Richard (1974). "The "Banyan" or Indian Presence at Massawa, the Dahlak Islands and the Horn of Africa". Journal of Ethiopian Studies. 12 (1): 185–212. JSTOR 44324706.
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Gitans, manouches et tsiganes : la route du Rom". Routard.com.
  32. Cressy, David (2016). "Trouble with Gypsies in Early Modern England". The Historical Journal. 59: 45–70. doi:10.1017/S0018246X15000278. S2CID 162837563.
  33. "Les persécutions et le génocide des Roms dans la seconde guerre mondiale - Presse fédéraliste". www.pressefederaliste.eu. 12 July 2022.
  34. "Bosnia and Herzegovina - RomArchive". www.romarchive.eu.
  35. 35.0 35.1 "Compilhistoire - Roms, Gitans, Manouches et Tsiganes". compilhistoire.pagesperso-orange.fr.
  36. "Home".
  37. "Gypsies | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 "What does DIDICOY mean?". www.definitions.net. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  39. Crawford, ~ George (29 March 2014). "Romany Rai". Preindustrial Craftsmanship. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  40. "Meet the Roma: 2,000 years ago, the first 'Indians' to go to Europe". The Indian Express. 23 February 2016.
  41. "Buddhism and the Romani". 7 March 2010.
  42. "The Seven Noahide Laws As Practice". Archived from the original on 2022-06-25. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  43. "Jai Bhim! The Roma Buddhists of Hungary".
  45. "The making of an order : An ethnography of Romani Sufis in Uskudar". Archived from the original on 2023-06-21. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  46. "The Muslim Gypsies in Romania".
  47. Paspati, A. G.; Hamlin, C. (1860). "Memoir on the Language of the Gypsies, as Now Used in the Turkish Empire". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 7: 143–270. doi:10.2307/592158. JSTOR 592158 – via JSTOR.
  48. "raśaj". February 17, 2022 – via Wiktionary.
  49. "The religion and culture of the Roma (A.k.a. Gypsies)". Archived from the original on 2021-12-02. Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  50. "RADOC".
  51. "Expulsions des Roms : fascistes sous Sarkozy, mais humanitaires et normales sous Hollande". Riposte Laïque (in French). 24 August 2012.
  52. "Union Romani Internationale - Union Romani Internationale". union-romani-internationale.blogg.org (in French).

Other websites[change | change source]