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Polish voivodeships since 1999.

A voivodeship, also spelled voivodship, voivodina or vojvodina (Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodina (војводина), vojvodstvo (војводство) or vojvodovina (војводовина), Hungarian: vajdaság, Lithuanian: vaivadija, Latin Palatinatus in Poland), is a geographical administrative division dating to medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a voivod (voivode, wojewoda). The voivod (literal translation: "the one who leads the warriors", is the same as to Dux Exercituum / Herzog) was originally the military commander next to the ruler.