Acetone

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Acetone[1]
Acetone-CRC-MW-ED-dimensions-2D.png
Acetone-2D-skeletal.svg
Acetone-3D-balls.png
Acetone-3D-vdW.png
Sample of Acetone.jpg
IUPAC name Propanone
Other names Dimethyl ketone[3]

β-Ketopropane[3]
Propanone[4]
2-Propanone[3]
Dimethyl formaldehyde[5]
Pyroacetic spirit (archaic)[6]

Identifiers
Abbreviations DMK
CAS number 67-64-1
PubChem 180
EC number 200-662-2
KEGG D02311
MeSH Acetone
ChEBI CHEBI:15347
RTECS number AL3150000
SMILES CC(C)=O
Beilstein Reference 635680
Gmelin Reference 1466
3DMet B00058
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6O
Molar mass 58.07 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Pungent, irritating, floral
Density 0.791 g cm−3
Melting point

-95--93 °C, 178-180 K, -139--136 °F

Boiling point

56-57 °C, 329-330 K, 133-134 °F

log P -0.042
Vapor pressure 24.46–24.60 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 24.2
Basicity (pKb) -10.2
Refractive index (nD) 1.35900
Viscosity 0.3075 cP
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Trigonal planar at C2
Molecular shape Dihedral at C2
Dipole moment 2.91 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
-250.03-(−248.77) kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
-1.772 MJ mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
200.4 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 125.45 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
EU classification Flammable F Irritant Xi
EU Index 606-001-00-8
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

3
1
0
 
Flash point −17 °C
Autoignition
temperature
465 °C
Explosive limits 13.2–57.0%
Related compounds
Related compounds Butanone

Isopropanol

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Acetone is the organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. This clear, mobile, easy-to-burn liquid is the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone can be mixed with water. It is an important solvent, often to clean things in the laboratory. Common uses of acetone in the home are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. It is a common building block in organic chemistry.

Sources[change | change source]

  1. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 58
  2. "Acetone – PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=180.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Acetone". NIST Chemistry WebBook. USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology. http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=67-64-1.
  4. Klamt, Andreas (2005). COSMO-RS: From Quantum Chemistry to Fluid Phase Thermodynamics and Drug Design. Elsevier. pp. 92–94. ISBN 0-444-51994-7, 9780444519948 .
  5. Ash, Michael; Ash, Irene (2004). Handbook of preservatives. Synapse Information Resources, Inc.. p. 369. ISBN 1-890595-66-7 .
  6. Myers, Richard L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide. Greenwood. pp. 4–6. ISBN 9780313080579 .