Colour vision is the capacity of an organism to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit. Colour is a quality constructed by the visual brain and not a property of objects.
It is these frequencies which are perceived as red.
The nervous system derives colour by comparing the responses to light from the several types of cone photoreceptors in the eye. These cone photoreceptors are sensitive to different portions of the visible spectrum.
For humans, the visible spectrum ranges approximately from 380 to 740 nm, and there are normally three types of cones. The visible range and number of cone types differ between species.
The advantage of colour vision is the better discrimination of surfaces it allows.