|Native to|| Dominican Republic
U.S. Virgin Islands
|Native speakers||13.5 million (2006)|
African influence [change]
The African influence in Dominican Spanish can be heard in its sounds, syntax, grammar, vocabulary, idioms, and the hundreds if not thousands of words used in every day locally. Examples of African based syntax:
- Dominican Spanish Creole: "Como tu ta?", Spanish: "Como estas tu?"
- Dominican Spanish Creole: "Como tu te llama?", Spanish: "Cual es su nombre?" or "Como se llama usted?"
- Dominican Spanish Creole: "P'onde ta?" or "Onde ta", Spanish: "Por donde esta eso?" or "Por donde estas?"
Words such as "Mangu" (Mashed plantains), "Kamboumbo" (basket for clothes), "Guineo" or "Guinea" (Banana), and many more. Note, most of these African words are either Igbo or Kikongo origins. The most dominant African languages that has had the most influence in the formation of Dominican Creole is the Igbo, Yoruba, Kongo, Twi, Fon, Ewe, Mandinga, Hausa, Wolof etc. With the Syntax being based off the Yoruba language and Mande languages, the phonetics heavily influenced by the Kikongo, and the pronouciations of certain words containing some elements of the Mandingas and the Igbos. Most schollars, just as all of the West Indies have said that the Kikongo language influenced greatly the formation of Dominican Creole.
These are some examples of Dominican Spanish Creole. <<Note>> some of these words or expressions/idioms are of African origin.
- Chalina: corbata; Tie
- Terina: vasija para lavarse las manos; handwashing vessel
- Boto: sin filo; blunt
- Mayimbe: el rey; king
- Mata: yerba, árbol, planta de cualquier tipo; grass, tree, plant of any kind
- Pela: golpes, paliza; hitting, beating
- Mai: madre; mother
- Pai: Padre; Father
- Soga: Cualquier tipo de cuerda; Any type of rope
- Abarrotar: llenar, atestar; fill, cram
- Bandazo: tumbo; lie
- Chuma: Populazo, gentuza; Populazo, riffraff
- Desamarrar: desatar; loosen
- Embicar: beber a pico de botella; drinking from the bottle
- Garete: (al garete) sin control, sin orden; (to hell) without control, without a warrant
- Singar: realizar el acto sexual; having sexual intercourse
- Chin/Chin chin: un poquito, un poco; a little bit, a little, not much
- Zafar: soltar; release or give up
- Bembe: labios; lips
- Cateyano: Castellano, Espanol; Castilian, Spanish
- Kalunga: Dios; God
- Matatan: el macho, el veradero hombre; the man
- Kikonde: Esconde, to hide
Related languages [change]
Cuban Creole Oriental or the Eastern Cuban Spanish dialect is remarkably identical to Dominican Creole. Many Cubans consider the east part of Cuba as another Dominican Republic due to similar culture.