|Marbled electric ray|
de Buen, 1926
Electric rays are found from shallow coastal waters down to at least 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) depth. They are sluggish and slow moving, propelling themselves along with their tails, rather than using their disc-shaped bodies, as other rays do. They feed on invertebrates and small fish. They lie in wait for prey below the sand or other substrate, using their electricity to stun and capture it.
- Family Narcinidae (numbfishes)
- Subfamily Narcininae
- Subfamily Narkinae (sleeper rays)
- Family Torpedinidae (torpedo electric rays)
- Subfamily Hypninae (coffin rays)
- Subfamily Torpedininae
- Martin, R. Aidan. Electric Rays. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on October 12, 2008.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. 2009. "Torpediniformes" in FishBase. FishBase online
- Stevens J. & Last P.K. (1998). Paxton J.R. & Eschmeyer W.N.. ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
- Hamlett, William C. (1999). Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Baltimore and London: JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018604-8-2.
- Compagno, Leonard J.V. and Heemstra, Phillip C. (May 2007) "Electrolux addisoni, a new genus and species of electric ray from the east coast of South Africa (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei: Narkidae), with a review of torpedinoid taxonomy". Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin 7: 15-49. Retrieved on October 22, 2008.