First law of thermodynamics
||The English used in this article may not be easy for everybody to understand. (April 2012)|
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can't be created or destroyed, but it can be changed. The law forms the basis of the principal of conservation of energy. It follows from the law that when machines use energy, the machines convert the energy from one kind energy to another. Energy cannot be created and never goes away. Energy just changes its form. People can use the changes to do work that is useful. Examples of forms of energy in classical mechanics include heat, light, kinetic (movement) or potential energy. However in modern physics it is considered that there are only two types of energy - mass and kinetic energy, although this may not be helpful to those not familiar with more complex physics.
The law means that the total energy of the universe is a constant. However, energy can be transferred from one part of the universe to another.
The most common wording of the first law of thermodynamics used by scientists is:
|“||The increase in the internal energy of a thermodynamic system is equal to the amount of heat energy added to the system minus the work done by the system on the surroundings.||”|
The first explicit statement of the first law of thermodynamics was given by Rudolf Clausius in 1850: "There is a state function E, called 'energy', whose differential equals the work exchanged with the surroundings during an adiabatic process."
Thermodynamics and Engineering [change]
In thermodynamics and engineering, it is natural to think of the system as a heat engine which does work on the surroundings, and to state that the total energy added by heating is equal to the sum of the increase in internal energy plus the work done by the system. Hence is the amount of energy lost by the system due to work done by the system on its surroundings. During the portion of the thermodynamic cycle where the engine is doing work, is positive, but there will always be a portion of the cycle where is negative, e.g., when the working gas is being compressed. When represents the work done by the system, the first law is written:
People disagree whether energy is a positive or a negative number. So that is the flow of heat out of the system, and is the work into the system:
Because of this ambiguity, it is very important in any discussion involving the first law to explicitly establish the sign convention in use.
Related pages [change]
- 1st Law of Thermodynamics Ohio State University. Accessed July 2011
- Goldstein, Martin, and Inge F., 1993. The Refrigerator and the Universe. Harvard Univ. Press. A gentle introduction.