Like energy, it is a scalar quantity, with SI units of joules. Heat conduction is not considered to be a form of work, since there is no macroscopically measurable force, only microscopic forces occurring in atomic collisions. The term work was created in the 1830s by the French mathematician Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis.
If a force F acts on an object while the object is displaced a distance d, and the force and displacement are parallel to each other, the work done on the object is the product of F and d:
If the force and the displacement are in the same direction, the work is positive. If the force and the displacement are in opposite directions the work is negative.
- Jammer, Max (1957). Concepts of Force. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-40689-X.
- Tipler (1991), page 138.
- Resnick, Robert and Halliday, David (1966), Physics, Section 7-2 (Vol I and II, Combined edition), Wiley International Edition, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-11527