Hasmonean dynasty

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The Hasmonean dynasty was a family that led the Hasmoneans led the Maccabean Revolt and transformed Judah from a Seleucid possession that was becoming more Greek-like into an independent, Jewish nation-state. The Hasmoneans expanded Judah through conquest.

After the Salome Alexandra's death in 67 B.C., Salome's sons Hyrcanus II, who was backed by Antipater (the father of Herod the Great), and Aristobulus II fought for control of the Judah. The Roman Pompey entered the conflict on Hyrcanus' side. Aristobulus surrendered to the Romans and was sent to Rome, where he was later murdered.

In 40 B.C., the Parthian Empire and Aristobulus' son Antigonus II invaded Judah and captured Hyrcanus. The Romans then proclaimed Antipater's son Herod king of Judea. The Romans defeated the Parthians and captured and killed Antigonus, the last ruler of the Hasmonean dynasty.