Holy Roman Emperor

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Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. The Emperors used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of their authority
Emperor of the Romans
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Quaterionenadler David de Negker.svg
Quaternion Eagle
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png
Francis II
First monarch Otto I (with numbering from Charlemagne)
Last monarch Francis II
Style His Imperial Majesty
Appointer Papal appointment
Monarchy started 25 December 800
Monarchy ended 6 August 1806
Current pretender Position abolished

Holy Roman Emperor was the title that was given to the ruler of a loose group of places in what is now known as Germany called the Holy Roman Empire. The title of "emperor" was passed from the Romans to the Frankish kingdom when, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

List of emperors[change | change source]

This list includes all emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, whether or not they called themselves Holy Roman Emperor. There are some gaps. For example, Henry the Fowler was King of Germany but not Emperor.

Emperors before Otto the Great[change | change source]

Some historians say the Carolingian Empire was the start of the Holy Roman Empire. Other say the start of the Holy Roman Empire was 962.[1] The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

Carolingian dynasty[change | change source]

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Charlemagne-by-Durer.jpg
Charles I
(Charlemagne)
2 April 742
-
28 January 814
25 December 800 28 January 814 Founder of the Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne denier Mayence 812 814.jpg
Ludwik I Pobożny.jpg
Louis I 778
-
20 June 840
5 October 816 20 June 840 son of Emperor Charles I
Louis le Pieu denier Sens 818 823.jpg
Lothar I.jpg
Lothair I 795
-
29 September 855
5 April 823 29 September 855 son of Emperor Louis I
Lothaire 1er denier 840 855.jpg
Reichsschwert ludwig das kind.jpg
Louis II 825
-
12 August 875
1st Easter 850
2nd 18 May 872
12 August 875 son of Emperor Lothair I
Jean Dassier - Louis II. roy de France.jpg
Charles2lechauve.jpg
Charles II 13 June 823
-
6 October 877
29 December 875 6 October 877 son of Emperor Louis I
Charles le Chauve denier Bourges after 848.jpg
Charles the Fat.jpg
Charles III 13 June 839
-
13 January 888
12 February 881 13 January 888 grandson of Emperor Louis I
Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg

Guideschi dynasty[change | change source]

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Sin foto.svg
Guy 855
-
12 December 894
May 891 12 December 894 great-great grandson of Emperor Charles I -
Sin foto.svg
Lambert 880
-
15 October 898
30 April 892 15 October 898 son of Emperor Guy -

Carolingian dynasty[change | change source]

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Die deutschen Kaiser Arnulph.jpg
Arnulph 850
-
8 December 899
22 February 896 8 December 899 nephew of Charles III
and
great-grandson of Emperor Louis I
-

Bosonid dynasty[change | change source]

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Sin foto.svg
Louis III 880
-
28 June 928
22 February 901 21 July 905 grandson of Emperor Louis II -

Unruoching dynasty[change | change source]

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Berengar I of Italy.jpg
Berengar 845
-
7 April 924
December 915 7 April 924 grandson of Emperor Louis I -

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

Holy Roman Emperors[change | change source]

Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
1
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
Otto I 23 November 912
-
7 May 973
- 2 February 962 7 May 973 perhaps great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I[source?]
Siegel Otto I 968.jpg
2
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
Otto II 955
-
7 December 983
961 25 December 967 7 December 983 son of Emperor Otto I
3
Ota3.jpg
Otto III 980
-
23 January 1002
June 983 21 May 996 23 January 1002 son of Emperor Otto II
Ota3 cisar.jpg
4
Jindra2 cisar.jpg
Henry II
[2]
6 May 973
-
13 July 1024
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 13 July 1024 second-cousin of Emperor Otto III
and
great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I[source?]

Salian (Frankish) dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
5
Konrád2.jpg
Conrad II
[3]
990
-
4 June 1039
1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039 great-great-grandson of Emperor Otto I
6
Jindřich3Sálský.jpg
Henry III 29 October 1017
-
5 October 1056
1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 son of Emperor Conrad II
Siegel kaiser heinrich iii.png
7
Jindra4Salsky.jpg
Henry IV 11 November 1050
-
7 August 1106
1053 31 March 1084 December 1105 son of Emperor Henry III
Heinrich IV. 1089.jpg
8
Jindra5Salsky.jpg
Henry V
[4]
8 November 1086
-
23 May 1125
6 January 1099 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 son of Emperor Henry IV
Siegel Heinrich V.jpg

Supplinburg dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
9
Lotar III.JPG
Lothair III
[5]
9 June 1075
-
4 December 1137
1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 perhaps 9th generation descendant of Emperor Otto I
or
11th generation descendant of Emperor Charles II
Heinrich IV. 1089.jpg

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
10
Barbarossa.jpg
Frederick I 1122
-
10 June 1190
4 March 1152 18 June 1155 10 June 1190 great-grandson of Emperor Henry IV
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg
11
JindrichVIStauf trun.jpg
Henry VI November 1165
-
28 September 1197
 ?April 1169 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 son of Emperor Frederick I
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg

Welf dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
12
Ota4Brunsvik.jpg
Otto IV 1175 or 1176
-
19 May 1218
9 June 1198 4 October 1209 1215 great-grandson of Emperor Lothair III
Emporer Otto IV Arms.svg

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynasty[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
13
Frederick II and eagle.jpg
Frederick II 26 December 1194
-
13 December 1250
1196
1215 re-election
22 November 1220 13 December 1250 son of Emperor Henry VI
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg

House of Luxembourg[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
14
Henry7Luc.jpg
Henry VII 1275/1279
-
24 August 1313
1308 29 June 1312 24 August 1313 13th generation descendant of Emperor Louis III
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg

House of Wittelsbach[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
15
Ludwig der Bayer.jpg
Louis IV 1 April 1282
-
11 October 1347
October 1314 17 January 1328 11 October 1347 6th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III and 7th generation descendant of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor Louis IV Arms.svg

House of Luxembourg[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
16
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg
Charles IV 14 May 1316
-
29 November 1378
11 July 1346/
17 June 1349 re-election
5 April 1355 29 November 1378 grandson of Emperor Henry VII
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.png
17
Pisanello 024b.jpg
Sigismund 14 February 1368
-
9 December 1437
10 September 1410/
21 July 1411 re-election
31 May 1433 9 December 1437 son of Emperor Charles IV
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.png

House of Habsburg[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from an Emperor Arms
18
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg
Frederick III 21 September 1415
-
19 August 1493
1440 19 March 1452 19 August 1493 10th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III
Emperor Frederick III Arms.svg
19
Bernhard Strigel 007.jpg
Maximilian I 22 March 1459
-
12 January 1519
16 February 1486 -
[6]
12 January 1519 son of Emperor Frederick III
Maximilian I Arms.svg
20
Emperor charles v.png
Charles V 24 February 1500
-
21 September 1558
28 June 1519 February 1530 16 January 1556 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
21
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg
Ferdinand I 10 March 1503
-
25 July 1564
1531 -
[6]
25 July 1564 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.png
22
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg
Maximilian II 31 July 1527
-
12 October 1576
November 1562 -
[6]
12 October 1576 son of Emperor Ferdinand I
Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.png
23
Hans von Aachen 003.jpg
Rudolph II
[7]
18 July 1552
-
20 January 1612
1575 30 June 1575 20 January 1612 son of Emperor Maximilian II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
24
Lucas van Valckenborch 003.jpg
Matthias 24 February 1557
-
20 March 1619
1612 23 January 1612 20 March 1619 son of Emperor Maximilian II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
25
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg
Ferdinand II 9 July 1578
-
15 February 1637
1618 10 March 1619 15 February 1637 grandson of Emperor Ferdinand I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
26
Frans Luycx 002.jpg
Ferdinand III 13 July 1608
-
2 April 1657
1636 18 November 1637 2 April 1657 son of Emperor Ferdinand II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
27
Benjamin von Block 001.jpg
Leopold I 9 June 1640
-
5 May 1705
July 1658 6 March 1657 5 May 1705 son of Emperor Ferdinand III
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
28
Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor.png
Joseph I 26 July 1678
-
17 April 1711
6 January 1690 1 May 1705 17 April 1711 son of Emperor Leopold I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
29
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 004.jpg
Charles VI 1 October 1685
-
20 October 1740
12 October 1711 22 December 1711 20 October 1740 son of Emperor Leopold I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg

House of Wittelsbach[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
30
George Desmarées 002.jpg
Charles VII
[6]
6 August 1697
-
20 January 1745
24 January 1742 12 February 1742 20 January 1745 great-great grandson of Emperor Ferdinand II and 12th generation descendant of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VII Arms-imperial.svg

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[change | change source]

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from an Emperor Arms
31
Frans I von Habsburg.jpg
Francis I 8 December 1708
-
18 August 1765
13 September 1745 -
[6]
18 August 1765 great grandson of Emperor Ferdinand III
Francis I Arms-imperial.svg
32
Anton von Maron 006.png
Joseph II 13 March 1741
-
20 February 1790
after 18 August 1765 19 August 1765 20 February 1790 son of Emperor Francis I
Wappen Kaiser Joseph II. 1765 (Groß).png
33
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).png
Leopold II 5 May 1747
-
1 March 1792
after 20 February 1790 -
[6]
1 March 1792 son of Emperor Francis I
Leopold II Arms-imperial.svg
34
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png
Francis II 12 February 1768
-
2 March 1835
after 1 March 1792 4 March 1792 6 August 1806 son of Emperor Leopold II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg

References[change | change source]

  1. germanmilitaryhistory.com
  2. enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  3. enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  4. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30153-2 . http://books.google.com/books?id=RY6VmGuAaCkC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=supplinburg+dynasty&source=web&ots=RsLwH_MnGU&sig=EFPN-WhCOTcfJD4WsWDk39dsGl4.
  5. enumerated as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Emperor-Elect.
  7. enumerated as successor of Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291.