Menes was a pharaoh of the first dynasty of ancient Egypt. He lived ca. 3100-3000 BC. He brought together upper and lower Egypt to make an empire. He even wore both crowns: the white crown of lower Egypt and the red crown of upper Egypt. He built the ancient Egyptian city Memphis and made it the capital.
There is extensive archeological evidence that there was a pharaoh named Narmer, but little evidence for Menes. There is a general suspicion that Menes either was a name of Narmer, his predecessor, or of his successor, Hor-Aha.
According to Manetho, Menes reigned 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus.
- Kinnaer, Jacques. What is Really Known About the Narmer Palette?, KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Spring 2004.
- Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, London/New York 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, 70-71
- Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 405. Oxford University Press, 1961
- "Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet." Supreme Court of the United States.