Methane

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Methane
Methane-2D-dimensions.svg
Methane-CRC-MW-3D-balls.png
Methane-3D-space-filling.svg
IUPAC name
  • Methane[1] (substitutive)
  • Tetrahydridocarbon[1] (additive)
Identifiers
CAS number 74-82-8
PubChem 297
EC number 200-812-7
KEGG C01438
MeSH Methane
ChEBI CHEBI:16183
RTECS number PA1490000
SMILES C
Beilstein Reference 1718732
Gmelin Reference 59
3DMet B01450
Properties
Molecular formula CH4
Molar mass 16.04 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density 655.6 μg mL−1
Melting point

-182 °C, 90.7 K, -296 °F

Boiling point

-164--160 °C, 109-113 K, -263--256 °F

Solubility in water 22.7 mg L−1
log P 1.09
kH 14 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
Structure
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
Dipole moment 0 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−74.87 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−891.1–−890.3 kJ mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
186.25 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 35.69 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
EU classification Flammable F+
EU Index 601-001-00-4
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
1
0
 
Flash point −188 °C
Autoignition
temperature
537 °C
Explosive limits 5–15%
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Related compounds Guanidine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Methane is a hydrocarbon that is a gas at room temperature (20°C). Its molecular formula is CH4, so it has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms in a molecule. It is often found as the main part of natural gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas[2] 22 times more effective than carbon dioxide. It is also less stable and slowly oxidates by oxygen to carbon dioxide and water.

Uses[change | change source]

Methane is used in gas taps in places such as chemistry classrooms, laboratories, etc. as it burns very easily because of its simple molecular structure.

Molecular structure[change | change source]

Methane's molecular structure is very simple. It is a single carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms.

Production[change | change source]

Methane can be produced by many chemical methods, but usually is found in natural gas and is obtained by fractional distillation, after it is become liquid.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "methane (CHEBI:16183)". Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 17 October 2009. Main. https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=16183. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  2. White House Unveils Plans to Cut Methane Emissions March 28, 2014 New York Times