Temporal range: Pleistocene
|skeleton in the American Museum of Natural History, Manhattan|
Recent research suggests Neanderthals became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Earlier research had suggested a later date; the problem is the dating of the archaeological sites where their remains have been found.
Neanderthals used to be classified as a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Now, they are usually classified as a separate human species (Homo neanderthalensis).
Neanderthal remains have been found in most of Europe south of land covered by ice including the south coast of Great Britain. Finds have also been made outside of Europe in the Zagros Mountains and in the Levant.
History of discoveries [change]
In August 1856 the specimen that was to become known as Neanderthal 1 was discovered in the Neander Valley, Germany. The material was found in a limestone quarry near Düsseldorf. A skull cap was first discovered, followed by two femurs, five arm bones, part of the left pelvis, and fragments of a shoulder blade and ribs.
Actually, some remains had been found earlier, but not recognised as a separate species from us. The Engis child from Belgium was the first Neanderthal discovered, in 1829. The second discovered was the Forbes Quarry find from Gibralter in 1848.
Neanderthal men were about 164–168 cm tall and averaged 77.6 kg in weight. Neanderthal women stood about 154 cm tall and averaged 66.4 kg in weight.
Neanderthal long bones and joints are thicker than ours, and some long bones have a slight curve. Both the thickness and the curve suggest the need for more strength than our species.
Young Neanderthals [change]
This research suggests much more rapid physical development in Neanderthals than in modern human children. The x-ray synchrotron microtomography study of early H. sapiens argues that this difference existed between the two species as far back as 160,000 years before present.
Neanderthals seemed to suffer a high frequency of fractures. These fractures are often healed and show little or no sign of infection, suggesting that injured individuals were cared for during times of incapacitation.
Neanderthals showed a frequency of such injuries comparable to that of modern rodeo professionals, showing frequent contact with large, combative mammals. The fractures suggest they may have hunted by leaping onto their prey and stabbing or even wrestling it to the ground.
Life style [change]
The skulls are slightly larger than Homo sapiens, and this implies intelligence and probably the use of language. The skeleton, on the other hand, suggests they tended to solve their problems (such as hunting) more by force than we do.
Neanderthal stone tools are called Mousterian, and are an advance on the Acheulean tools made by earlier species of Man. Homo sapiens stone tools are far more varied still, and suggest that our species relied more on tools than the Neanderthals.
Neanderthals were almost exclusively meat eaters although their diet did include cooked vegetables. They made good tools and lived in complex social groups. Research on their remains has shown that it is possible that they had a spoken language but the nature of any such language is unknown.
There are a number of theories that try to explain why the Neanderthals died out. It has been suggested that they may have been unable to adapt to the changing climate. Alternatively it has been suggested that they were unable to successfully compete with the ancestors of modern humans.
- The word is pronounced without the 'h', and sometimes spelled 'Neandertal'. how to say: /niːˈændərθɑːl/, also with /neɪ-/, and /-tɑːl/
- Tattersall I, Schwartz JH (1999). "Hominids and hybrids: the place of Neanderthals in human evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (13): 7117–9. PMID 10377375. Available on-line
- Amos, Jonathan 2013. Last-stand Neanderthals queried. BBC News Science/Environment. 
- Ker Than 2006. Scientists decode Neanderthal genes
- Froehle, Andrew W; Chruchill, Steven E (2009). "Energetic competition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans". PaleoAnthropology pages=96-116. http://www.paleoanthro.org/journal/content/PA20090096.pdf. Retrieved 31.10.11.
- "Neanderthal". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/459.shtml. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Tafforeau P, Smith TM (2008). "Nondestructive imaging of hominoid dental microstructure using phase contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography". Journal of Human Evolution 54 (2): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.09.018. PMID 18045654.
- Smith T.M. et al. (2007). "Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (51): 20220–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707051104. PMC 2154412. PMID 18077342.
- Smith T.M. et al. (2007). "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (15): 6128–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104. PMC 1828706. PMID 17372199.
- T.D. Berger and E. Trinkaus (1995). "Patterns of trauma among Neadertals". Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 841–852. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(95)90013-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH8-4FRCV9P-F&_user=994540&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F1995&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=6844&view=c&_acct=C000050024&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=994540&md5=a958d2c59d5c6d934e9844f46f275e0e&ref=full. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
Further reading [change]
- Stringer, Chris and Gamble, Clive 1993. In search of the Neanderthals: solving the puzzle of human origins. Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-27807-5
- Stringer, Chris and Andrews, Peter 2005. The complete world of human evolution. Thames & Hudson, London.
- Dennis O'Neil 2004. Neandertals retrieved 12/26/2004
Other websites [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Homo neanderthalensis|
|The English Wikibooks has more information on:|
|Wikispecies has information on: Homo neanderthalensis.|
- Archaeology Info
- Greenwych.ca - 'Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale - evidence of natural foundation to diatonic scale (oldest known musical instrument), Greenwich Publishing
- Neanderthal DNA - 'Neanderthal DNA' Includes Neanderthal mtDNA sequences
- Neanderthal manifactured pitch
- Homo neanderthalensis reconstruction - Electronic articles published by the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History.
- Scientists decode Neanderthal genes
- Scientists build 'Frankenstein' Neanderthal skeleton
- A Neanderthal's DNA tale
- How Neanderthal molar teeth grew