Old Style and New Style dates
Old Style (or O.S.) and New Style (or N.S.) are used in English language historical studies to show that the start of the Julian year has been changed to start on 1 January (NS) even though some papers use a different start of year (OS). They can also be used to show that a date uses the Julian calendar (OS). The Julian calendar was used in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar (NS). The Latin words for O.S. are stili veteris or stilo vetere. They are used all around the world. They can be shortened to st.v and translatd as "(of) old style".
The Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Catholic countries beginning in 1582.
- Death warrant of Charles I web page of the UK National Archives.A demonstration of New Style meaning Julian calendar with a start of year adjustment.
- The October (November) Revolution Britannica encyclopaedia, A demonstration of New Style meaning the Gregorian calendar.
- Stockton, J.R. Date Miscellany I: The Old and New Styles "The terms 'Old Style' and 'New Style' are now commonly used for both the 'Start of Year' and 'Leap Year' [(Gregorian calendar)] changes (England & Wales: both in 1752; Scotland: 1600, 1752). I believe that, properly and historically, the 'Styles' really refer only to the 'Start of Year' change (from March 25th to January 1); and that the 'Leap Year' change should be described as the change from Julian to Gregorian."
- Spathaky, Mike Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar. "increasingly parish registers, in addition to a new year heading after 24th March showing, for example '1733', had another heading at the end of the following December indicating '1733/4'. This showed where the New Style 1734 started even though the Old Style 1733 continued until 24th March. ... We as historians have no excuse for creating ambiguity and must keep to the notation described above in one of its forms. It is no good writing simply 20th January 1745, for a reader is left wondering whether we have used the Old or the New Style reckoning. The date should either be written 20th January 1745 OS (if indeed it was Old Style) or as 20th January 1745/6. The hyphen (1745-6) is best avoided as it can be interpreted as indicating a period of time."
- Lenz, Rudolf; Uwe Bredehorn, Marek Winiarczyk (2002). Abkürzungen aus Personalschriften des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts (3 ed.). Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 210. ISBN 3515081526.