Oliver Cromwell

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Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
In office
16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
Preceded by Charles I (as King)
Succeeded by Richard Cromwell
Personal details
Born April 25, 1599(1599-04-25)
Huntingdon, England
Died September 3, 1658(1658-09-03) (aged 59)
Whitehall, London, England
Nationality English
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Bourchier
Religion Independent

Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599 – September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England.

Cromwell's actions during his career seem confusing to us today. He supported Parliament against the King, yet he ordered his soldiers to break up parliament. Under his rule, the Protectorate said that people's religious beliefs should be respected, but people who went against what most people believed were sometimes tortured and imprisoned.

Cromwell was the first ruler of England to be a Puritan.

Early life[change | edit source]

Cromwell started off as an unordinary man from Huntingdon. He first studied at Huntingdon Grammar School. where he was frowned upon by his father, whom he had a bad relationship with. He then went on to Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge. This was a new, small college where he had the chance to talk about his Puritan ideas. However, he never took a degree because his father died in 1617 while he was studying.[1]

The English Civil War[change | edit source]

In 1628, Cromwell became an MP and a Puritan and supported Parliament in its quarrel with the King. When war broke out, the King's army was stronger and better-prepared than the army of Parliament. Cromwell saw this, and he decided to train men to fight better. Soon the "New Model Army" he had trained began to win battles. As a result, Parliament won the war. By the end of the war, Cromwell was very powerful.

The Commonwealth: 1649-1653[change | edit source]

The Rump Parliament[change | edit source]

After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. A Council of State was appointed to manage affairs, which included Cromwell among its members. His real power base was in the army.

The Protectorate: 1653-1658[change | edit source]

A new constitution known as the Instrument of Government made Cromwell Lord Protector for life. He had the power to call and dissolve parliaments.

In 1657, Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament. Cromwell reflected for six weeks over the offer. Then he rejected it and was ceremonially re-installed as "Lord Protector" (with greater powers than had previously been granted him under this title) at Westminster Hall.

Cromwell is thought to have suffered from malaria (probably first contracted while on campaign in Ireland). He died at Whitehall on 3 September 1658, the anniversary of his great victories at Dunbar and Worcester.[2]

After Cromwell's death[change | edit source]

He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard. Although Richard was not entirely without ability, he had no power base in either Parliament or the Army, and was forced to resign in the spring of 1659, bringing the Protectorate to an end. A year later Parliament restored Charles II as king.

When the Royalists returned to power, Cromwell's corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

References[change | edit source]

  • Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Adamson, John (1987). "The English Nobility and the Projected Settlement of 1647", in Historical Journal, 30, 3.
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition). Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations [1]; [2]
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, (Longman), ISBN 0-582-77251-6.
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals, in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp. 18–37, ISSN 0013-8266 .
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9. [3]
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6.
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). The Lord Protector, 1653-8, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X.[4]
  • Kishlansky, Mark (1990), "Saye What?" in Historical Journal 33, 4.
  • Lenihan, Padraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War (Cork University Press), ISBN 1-85918-244-5
  • Morrill, John (1990). '"Cromwell and his contemporaries", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier" in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1987). Soldiers and Statesmen: the General Council of the Army and its Debates (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822752-3.
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8.
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0-14-100694-3.
  • Worden, Blair (1977). The Rump Parliament (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-29213-1.
  • Worden, Blair (2000). "Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell", in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp. 131–170. ISSN 0068-1202 .
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War (Wordsworth), ISBN 1-84022-222-0.

Footnotes[change | edit source]

Bibliography[change | edit source]

Biographies[change | edit source]

  • Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Ashley, Maurice (1958). The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell (Macmillan). [5]
  • Bennett, Martyn. Oliver Cromwell (2006), ISBN 0-415-31922-6.
  • Clifford, Alan (1999). Oliver Cromwell: the lessons and legacy of the Protectorate (Charenton Reformed Publishing), ISBN 0-9526716-2-X. Religious study.
  • Davis, J. C. (2001). Oliver Cromwell (Hodder Arnold), ISBN 0-340-73118-4.
  • Fraser, Antonia (1973). Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, and Cromwell: the Lord Protector (Phoenix Press), ISBN 0-7538-1331-9. Popular narrative.
  • Firth, C.H. (1900). Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans ISBN 1-4021-4474-1.
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9. Classic biography. [6]
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6. Short biography.
  • Hill, Christopher (1970). God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell And The English Revolution (Penguin), ISBN 0-297-00043-8.
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). "The Lord Protector, 1653-8", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4
  • Mason, James and Longman, Angela Leonard (1998). Oliver Cromwell (Longman), ISBN 0-582-29734-6.
  • Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press) [7]
  • Morrill, John (1990). "The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Paul, Robert (1958). The Lord Protector: Religion And Politics In The Life Of Oliver Cromwell. [8]
  • Smith, David (ed.) (2003). Oliver Cromwell and the Interregnum (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-22725-3.
  • Wedgwood, C.V. (1939). Oliver Cromwell (Duckworth), ISBN 0-7156-0656-5.
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8.

Military studies[change | edit source]

  • Durston, Christopher (2000). "'Settling the Hearts and Quieting the Minds of All Good People': the Major-generals and the Puritan Minorities of Interregnum England", in History 2000 85(278): pp. 247–267, ISSN 0018-2648 . Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). "The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals", in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp. 18–37, ISSN 0013-8266
  • Firth, C.H. (1921). Cromwell's Army (Greenhill Books), ISBN 1-85367-120-7.
  • Gillingham, J. (1976). Portrait Of A Soldier: Cromwell (Weidenfeld & Nicholson), ISBN 0-297-77148-5.
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X. [9]
  • Kitson, Frank (2004). Old Ironsides: The Military Biography of Oliver Cromwell (Weidenfeld Military), ISBN 0-297-84688-4.
  • Marshall, Alan (2004). Oliver Cromwell: Soldier: The Military Life of a Revolutionary at War (Brassey's), ISBN 1-85753-343-7.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "The Cromwellian Protectorate: a Military Dictatorship?" in History 1990 75(244): 207-231, ISSN 0018-2648 . Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War, (Wordsworth), ISBN 1-84022-222-0.

Surveys of era[change | edit source]

  • Coward, Barry (2002). The Cromwellian Protectorate (Manchester University Press), ISBN 0-7190-4317-4.
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, (Longman), ISBN 0-582-77251-6. Survey of political history of the era.
  • Davies, Godfrey (1959). The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-821704-8. online. Political, religious, and diplomatic overview of the era.
  • Korr, Charles P. (1975). Cromwell and the New Model Foreign Policy: England's Policy toward France, 1649-1658 (University of California Press), ISBN 0-520-02281-5. online
  • Macinnes, Allan (2005). The British Revolution, 1629-1660 (Palgrave Macmillan), ISBN 0-333-59750-8.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "Cromwell and his contemporaries". In Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1967). Oliver Cromwell and his Parliaments, in his Religion, the Reformation and Social Change (Macmillan). online
  • Venning, Timothy (1995). Cromwellian Foreign Policy (Palgrave Macmillan), ISBN 0-333-63388-1.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4.
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0-14-100694-3.

Primary sources[change | edit source]

  • Abbott, W.C. (ed.) (1937-47). Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 4 vols. The standard academic reference for Cromwell's own words. [10].
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition), Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations. [11]; [12]
  • Haykin, Michael A. G. (ed.) (1999). To Honour God: The Spirituality of Oliver Cromwell (Joshua Press), Excerpts from Cromwell's religious writings.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "Textualizing and Contextualizing Cromwell", in Historical Journal 1990 33(3): pp. 629–639. ISSN 0018-246X . Full text online at Jstor. Examines the Carlyle and Abbott editions.
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1.
  • Worden, Blair (2000). Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell, in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp. 131–170, ISSN 0068-1202 .

Other websites[change | edit source]

Preceded by
Charles I
as King
Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland
Succeeded by
Richard Cromwell