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Structure[change | edit source]
A pencil is usually made with a piece of carbon mixed with clay that has a wood case around it. Coloured pencils are a type of pencil that instead of greyish silver, the tip is different colors. Coloured pencils or crayons are usually meant for drawing rather than writing.
Pens and Pencils[change | edit source]
An important difference between pens and pencils is that the tip of a pencil is made of graphite (or lead) and pens have tips made of metal with ink coming out of the bottom. Pencil writings do not smudge or wash away if the paper gets wet, unlike pens which have ink. Writing with a pen will usually smudge. Writing from a pencil can be erased, but writing from a pen usually cannot. Finally, while pencils have been around for thousands of years, pens have only been around for about three hundred.
History[change | edit source]
The archetypal pencil may have been the stylus, which was a thin metal stick, often made from lead and used for scratching in papyrus, a form of early paper. They were used extensively by the ancient Egyptians and Romans. The word pencil comes from the Latin word pencillus which means "little tail".
Discovery of graphite deposit[change | edit source]
Some time before 1565 (it may have been as early as 1500), an enormous deposit of graphite was discovered on the approach to Grey Knotts from the hamlet of Seathwaite in Borrowdale parish, Cumbria, England. The locals found that it was very useful for marking sheep. This particular deposit of graphite was extremely pure and solid, and it could easily be sawn into sticks. This remains the only large scale deposit of graphite ever found in this solid form. Chemistry was in its infancy and the substance was thought to be a form of lead. Consequently, it was called plumbago (Latin for "lead ore"). The black core of pencils is still referred to as lead, even though it never contained the element lead. In German, the word for pencil still is Bleistift, literally lead stick.
The value of graphite was soon realized to be enormous, mainly because it could be used to line the moulds for cannonballs, and the mines were taken over by the Crown and guarded. When sufficient stocks of graphite had been accumulated, the mines were flooded to prevent theft until more was required. Graphite had to be smuggled out for use in pencils. Because graphite is soft, it requires some form of case. Graphite sticks were at first wrapped in string or in sheepskin for stability. The news of the usefulness of these early pencils spread far and wide, attracting the attention of artists all over the known world.
England continued to have a monopoly on the production of pencils until a method of reconstituting the graphite powder was found. The distinctively square English pencils continued to be made with sticks cut from natural graphite into the 1860s. The town of Keswick, near the original findings of block graphite, has a pencil museum.
Residual graphite from a pencil stick is not poisonous, and graphite is harmless if consumed.
No. 2 Pencils[change | edit source]
The number 2 pencil got its title from the shade of darkness it has (second most dark) from pencil #1-5. This pencil's shape is typically hexagonal and is frequently wood cased. They can write under water, upside down and in space. They can also write up to 45000 words[source?].
Wood holders added[change | edit source]
The Italians first thought of wooden holders. In 1560, an Italian couple named Simonio and Lyndiana Bernacotti created the first blueprints for the modern carpentry pencil to mark their carpentry pieces. Their version was instead a flat, oval, more compact type of pencil. They did this at first by hollowing out a stick of juniper wood. Shortly thereafter, a superior technique was discovered: two wooden halves were carved, a graphite stick inserted, and the two halves then glued together–essentially the same method in use to this day.
English and German pencils were not available to the French during the Napoleonic Wars. France was under naval blockade imposed by Great Britain and could not import the pure graphite sticks from the British Grey Knotts mines – the only known source in the world for solid graphite. France was also unable to import the inferior German graphite pencil substitute. It took the efforts of an officer in Napoleon's army to change this. In 1795, Nicholas Jacques Conté discovered a method of mixing powdered graphite with clay and forming the mixture into rods that were then fired in a kiln. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite rod could also be varied. This method of manufacture, which had been earlier discovered by the Austrian Joseph Hardtmuth of Koh-I-Noor in 1790, remains in use.
In England, pencils continued to be made from whole sawn graphite. Henry Bessemer's first successful invention (1838) was a method of compressing graphite powder into solid graphite thus allowing the waste from sawing to be reused.
American colonists imported pencils from Europe until after the American Revolution. Benjamin Franklin advertised pencils for sale in his Pennsylvania Gazette in 1729, and George Washington used a three-inch pencil when he surveyed the Ohio Territory in 1762.[source?] It is said that William Munroe, a cabinetmaker in Concord, Massachusetts, made the first American wood pencils in 1812. This was not the only pencil-making occurring in Concord. According to Henry Petroski, transcendentalist philosopher Henry David Thoreau discovered how to make a good pencil out of inferior graphite using clay as the binder; this invention was prompted by his father's pencil factory in Concord, which employed graphite found in New Hampshire in 1821 by Charles Dunbar.
Munroe's method of making pencils was painstakingly slow, and in the neighbouring town of Acton, a pencil mill owner named Ebenezer Wood set out to automate the process at his own pencil mill located at Nashoba Brook along the old Davis Road. He used the first circular saw in pencil production. He constructed the first of the hexagon- and octagon-shaped wooden casings that we have today. Ebenezer did not patent his invention and shared his techniques with whomever asked. One of those was Eberhard Faber of New York, who became the leader in pencil production.
Joseph Dixon, an inventor and entrepreneur involved with the Tantiusques granite mine in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, developed a means to mass produce pencils. By 1870, The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company was the world’s largest dealer and consumer of graphite and later became the contemporary Dixon Ticonderoga pencil and art supplies company.
By the end of the 19th century over 240,000 pencils were used each day in the United States alone. The favoured timber for pencils was Red Cedar as it was aromatic and did not splinter when sharpened. In the early 1900s supplies of Red Cedar were dwindling so that pencil manufacturers were forced to recycle the wood from cedar fences and barns to maintain supply. It was soon discovered that Incense cedar, when dyed and perfumed to resemble Red Cedar, was a suitable alternative and most pencils today are made from this timber which is grown in managed forests. Over 14 billion pencils are manufactured worldwide annually.
Eraser attached[change | edit source]
On 30 March 1858, Hymen Lipman received the first patent for attaching an eraser to the end of a pencil. In 1862 Lipman sold his patent to Joseph Reckendorfer for $100,000, who went to sue the pencil manufacturer Faber-Castell for infringement. In 1875, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled against Reckendorfer declaring the patent invalid.
The metal band used to mate the eraser with pencil is called a ferrule.
Other attempts[change | edit source]
The first attempt to manufacture graphite sticks from powdered graphite was in Nuremberg, Germany in 1662. They used a mixture of graphite, sulfur and antimony. Though usable, they were not as good as the English pencils.
English and German pencils were not available to the French during the Napoleonic wars. It took the efforts of an officer in Napoleon's army to change this. In 1795 Nicholas Jacques Conté discovered a method of mixing powdered graphite with clay and forming the mixture into rods which were then fired in a kiln. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite rod could also be varied (the more clay, the harder the pencil, and the lighter the color of the mark). This method of making pencils is still used today.
Modern day pencils[change | edit source]
Today, pencils are made industrially by mixing finely ground graphite and clay powders, adding water, forming long spaghetti-like strings, and firing them in a kiln. The resulting strings are dipped in oil or molten wax which seeps into the tiny holes of the material, resulting in smoother writing. A juniper or incense-cedar plank with several long parallel grooves is cut to make something called a slate, and the graphite/clay strings are inserted into the grooves. Another grooved plank is glued on top, and the whole thing is then cut into individual pencils, which are then varnished or painted.
References[change | edit source]
- Martin and Jean Norgate, Geography Department, Portsmouth University (2008). "Old Cumbria Gazetteer, black lead mine, Seathwaite". http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/thelakes/html/lgaz/lk00976.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- Alfred Wainwright (2005). A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, Western Fells. ISBN 0-7112-2460-9.
- "Graphite from the Plumbago Mine, Borrowdale, England". Department of Physics at Michigan Technological University. http://www.phy.mtu.edu/~jaszczak/borrowdale.html. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- "Lakeland's Mining Heritage". www.cumbria-industries.org.uk. http://www.cumbria-industries.org.uk/wad.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- "Definition of Plumbago". Answers.com. http://www.answers.com/topic/plumbago. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- "Definition of Plumbago". Thefreedictionary.com. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/plumbago. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- "Keswick Pencil Museum". Pencilmuseum.co.uk. http://www.pencilmuseum.co.uk/. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Graphite - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity, and regulatory information". Pesticideinfo.org. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33124. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Who invented the pencil?". http://www.rocketcityspacepioneers.com/space/who-invented-the-pencil. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Origin of the pencil". http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=1586. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Invention of Modern Pencil Lead". http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=1588. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Bessemer, Henry. "Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S: An Autobiography. Chapter 3."
- "Acton Conservation Lands, Early American Pencils". Actontrails.org. http://www.actontrails.org/EAPencils.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Dixon Ticonderoga Company". Dixonusa.com. http://www.dixonusa.com/index.cfm/fuseaction=history.dixon. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Tantiusques Graphite Mine". Thetrustees.org. http://www.thetrustees.org/pages/368_tantiusques.cfm. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "The Point Of It All". Discovery Channel Magazine. Volume 1, Issue 5, 2008
- "US Patent 19783 Combination of Lead-Pencil and Eraser by L. Lipman". Patft.uspto.gov. http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=19783. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Petroski, Henry (1990). The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 171. ISBN 0-394-57422-2.
- "Reckendorfer v. Faber 92 U.S. 347 (1875)". Supreme.justia.com. http://supreme.justia.com/us/92/347/case.html. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
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