All the education was done in Latin, which educated pupils learnt at school, or from a private tutor. Latin was the lingua franca (universal language) of mediaeval Europe: even the Bible could only be read in Latin. Since the quadrivium was taught in universities, only boys could take it (because only males took part in universities). The teaching was done by priests. If girls wanted education, it had to be done in their homes. In the modern form of liberal arts in the United States, both sexes are taught, although there are still a few single-sex institutions.