Sultan

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Sultan Mehmed II Fatih

Sultan is a name for Islamic rulers or monarch. While there is no specific word for a sultan's wife, a female ruler is called a sultana.

The word sultan was an Arabic language noun meaning "strength", "authority", or "rulership". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty. They did not have to take orders from any higher ruler, without claiming the overall caliphate.

The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called a sultanate.