Sumer

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Sumerian cities

Sumer was an ancient civilization in the southern part of Mesopotamia (modern day southeastern Iraq) that started around 3500 BC. It was one of the first civilizations in the world. The Sumerian civilization grew along the Tigris and Euphrates. This land was good for growing food. Sumerian culture is famous for its written cuneiform script - where letters were formed by pressing a triangle shaped reed into wet-clay tiles. They are also credited with creating the wheel, and dividing a day into 24 hours, and each hour into 60 minutes.

Culture[change | change source]

Communities[change | change source]

Sumerian communities were organized into city states, each ruled by a priest or king. One of the most famous Sumerian cities was Ur.

Identity and language[change | change source]

The Sumerians lost their identity with their language around 2000 BC, because a large group of different people, the Amorites, moved into their region.

Clothing[change | change source]

The Sumerians made their clothing by using the natural resources that were available to them. Clothing was made from wool or flax which Sumerians could raise and harvest. (Flax is a plant with blue flowers and the stems of these plants were used to make the clothing.) How thick or how coarse the clothing was meant the season in which the clothes would be worn. Like us, heavier clothing would be worn in the winter and lighter clothing would be worn in the summer.

Men were barechested and wore skirt-like garments that tied at the waist. Women usually wore gowns that covered them from their shoulders to their ankles. The right arm and shoulder were left uncovered. Men were either clean shaven or had long hair and beards. Women wore their hair long, but they usually braided it and wrapped it around their heads. When entertaining guests, women would place headdresses in their hair.

Although both rich and poor Sumerians wore the same style of clothing, the richer Sumerians wore clothing that was made out of expensive and luxurious materials. Rich women and princesses also wore clothing that was colorful and bright.

Both men and women wore earrings and necklaces. During celebrations, even more jewelry was worn. The wealthier Sumerians often wore beautiful gold and silver bracelets and earrings. Sumerians also wore necklaces with bright, precious stones. Some of these stones were lapis lazuli and carnelian.

Other pages[change | change source]